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研究生:陳柏誠
研究生(外文):Po-ChengChen
論文名稱:GSSI: 支援單系統映像之格網系統
論文名稱(外文):GSSI: a Grid System Supporting a Single System Image
指導教授:謝錫堃謝錫堃引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ce-Kuen Shieh
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電腦與通信工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:分散式共享記憶體單系統映像非專屬資源遠端資料存取資源重組
外文關鍵詞:Distributed Shared Memory (DSM)Single system imageNon-dedicated resourceRemote data accessResource reconfiguration
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本研究主要探討如何設計並實現一個支援單系統映像之格網系統。我們將該系統命名為GSSI,它使用抽象層的軟體模型封裝分散於廣域網路上的各個格網節點;從GSSI使用者的角度而言,整個格網系統就如同一台虛擬的對稱式多重處理器(symmetric multiprocessor, SMP)電腦。
GSSI建立了虛擬多處理器(virtual multiprocessor)以及虛擬共享位址空間(virtual shared address space)的抽象層;因此,使用者不需再像使用MPI 和PVM 一樣,必須費心處理行程之間的訊息傳遞問題。反之,使用者只要具備多引線(multithreaded)平行程式設計的概念,便能夠快速地開發出可執行在格網環境的平行應用程式。再者,GSSI亦支援虛擬單一檔案層次結構(virtual single file hierarchy);如此一來使用者可以透通地(transparently)存取本地端與遠端檔案,而不必考慮檔案存放的實際位置。
此外,考慮到格網節點本身的非專屬特性(non-dedication),有時格網使用者不得不與格網節點提供者同時共享一個節點的計算資源;而所謂的共享,在各個工作都亟需計算資源時,就變成了彼此競爭了,這將會造成了格網節點的資源可得性問題(The availability problem)。對格網使用者來說,他們正在使用的某個格網節點在下一秒可能會被回收而無法使用,資源的服務品質將無法得到保證。對節點的提供者來說,他們熱心的共享資源,卻需要與格網使用者競爭本來就是自己所擁有的計算資源。這樣的現象將降低格網計算對人們的吸引力。為了改善這些問題,GSSI亦加入了多層次的資源重組機制,可根據格網節點提供者的工作負載量,動態的調整格網使用者對格網節點資源的使用,藉此將使得格網節點資源得到最有效的利用,並降低對格網節點提供者的干擾。
整體而言,GSSI最大的貢獻是,能夠讓過去針對對稱式多重處理器(SMP)電腦所設計的多執行緒程式,在不需修改程式碼的情況下直接運行於格網環境。而且,GSSI完全採取使用者階層(user-level)的設計,無須在格網節點上安裝作業系統補丁(patch),如此一來可有效降低格網節點提供者的管理負擔。

This dissertation presents the design and implementation of a grid system supporting a single system image, designated as GSSI. GSSI encapsulates the grid nodes distributed over a wide-area network in an abstract layer, and thereby the applications above the layer can see the encapsulated grid nodes as a virtual symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) computer.
GSSI supports a virtual multiprocessor abstraction and a virtual shared address space. Thus, the users can design grid applications by using multithreaded programming paradigm that relieves the users of worrying about the complexities of data communication and workload distribution issues. Moreover, GSSI supports a virtual single file hierarchy. Accordingly, grid applications can transparently access the distributed files without concern about the physical locations of the required files.
Additionally, grid nodes are non-dedicated, and thus grid applications are sometimes forced to compete with resource owners’ applications for idle CPU cycles. As a result, the turnaround time of both sets of applications are invariably delayed. Consequently, GSSI also provides a set of resource reconfiguration mechanisms for facilitating the idle CPU cycles of each grid node to be fully exploited by grid applications with minimum interference to the owners’ applications.
In summary, the most significant contribution of GSSI is facilitating legacy multithreaded programs to be directly executed in the grid environment without modification. Besides, the design of GSSI is a completed user-level solution; adopting GSSI does not require the user (or grid resource owners) to install any software and to modify the underlying operating system.

摘要 I
Abstract III
Acknowledgement V
Contents VI
Figures VIII
Tables IX
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Related Work 5
2.1 Single System Image 5
2.2 Grid Programming Toolkits and DSM Systems 8
2.3 Remote Data Access Schemes 10
2.4 Resource Reconfiguration Schemes 13
Chapter 3 System Design 15
3.1 Execution Environment 17
3.2 GSSI Middleware 20
3.3 DSM Subsystem 22
3.4 User-level Filesystem Module (UFM) 25
3.4.1 Access Transparency 26
3.4.2 Latency hiding 27
3.4.3 User-level Cache 29
3.5 Resource Reconfiguration Module (RRM) 31
3.5.1 Classification of Owner Workload States 31
3.5.2 Progressive, Multi-layer Resource Reconfiguration 36
Chapter 4 Implementation 39
4.1 DSM Subsystem 39
4.1.1 Thread Management 41
4.1.2 Memory Management 43
4.1.3 Two-Level Consistency Protocol 45
4.2 User-level Filesystem Module (UFM) 49
4.2.1 Data Co-allocation Download 51
4.2.2 Exponential Growth Pre-fetching 52
4.2.3 User-level Cache 53
4.3 Resource Reconfiguration Module (RRM) 57
4.3.1 Classification of Owner Workload States 57
4.3.2 Processor Reconfiguration 58
4.3.3 Node Reconfiguration 59
4.3.4 Site Reconfiguration 60
4.3.5 Progressive Reconfiguration Manner 61
Chapter 5 Performance Evaluation 64
5.1 Impact of the Two-Level Consistency Protocol 64
5.2 Practicality of Dynamic Resource Reconfiguration 69
5.3 Performance of Remote Files Access 75
Chapter 6 Conclusion 80
Bibliography 84

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