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研究生:陳志銘
研究生(外文):Chih-MingChen
論文名稱:三維矩陣編碼於頻域/時域/空域光分碼多重擷取系統之效能分析與設計
論文名稱(外文):Performance Analysis and Design of Three-Dimensional Wavelength/Time/Spatial Coding over Optical CDMA Network
指導教授:黃振發黃振發引用關係顏志達顏志達引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jen-Fa HuangJen-Fa Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電腦與通信工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:38
中文關鍵詞:光分碼多重擷取多重使用者干擾
外文關鍵詞:Optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA)multiuser interface (MUI)
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由於低傳輸損耗及高可用頻寬之特性,使用單模光纖做為高速長距離之通訊媒介變得愈來愈普及,而利用光纖建構之區域網路也正在蓬勃發展。無論是何種網路系統,一個重要之課題為如何為每位使用著分配合理的網路資源。光分碼多工被認為是一種可用在區域網路之解決方式,因為其可提供使用者同步且即時地連接上網路,並同時保有高傳輸安全性。目前已有提出數種被動之光分碼多工架構。傳統之光分碼多工主要可分為四種:展時編碼、跳頻編碼、振幅頻譜編碼及空域編碼。
光分碼多工最廣為人知的缺點為,其它使用者會對系統效能造成影響,稱為多重使用者干擾。在早期的光分碼多工系統中,光正交碼為一個一維二位元序列碼之集合。為了同時支援大量之使用者,碼必需具有良好之自相關特性。為了達成此目標,通常使用碼長較長之碼字。換句話說,頻寬需求大量的增加,對編碼速度及硬體要求也會更加嚴苛。因此,二維碼及三維碼等多維度之碼被提出,以克服此問題。
在我們的研究中,提出二種不同的三維混和碼及對應之編解碼器,將頻域/時域/ 空域之編碼,用於光分碼多工系統之數位及類比傳輸。此外,我們也將探討碼的相關性質、編碼碼器的設計以及系統效能。

The use of single-mode optical fiber in high bit-rate long-haul communication links has prevalent due to the low propagation loss and the large bandwidth available. The development of local area networks (LAN’s) using optical fiber is rapidly continuing. A crucial aspect of any network implementation is the system by which each user is allocated a share of the network resources. Optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system is thought to be a more suitable solution in a local-area network, as it provides multiple users access the network asynchronously and simultaneously with high level transmission security [1-2]. Several methods have been proposed to achieve passive OCDMA. The conventional OCDMA system mainly has four kinds of schemes, namely time-spreading scheme, frequency-hopping scheme, spectral amplitude-coding (SAC) scheme, and spatial coding scheme.
It’s well known that the performance of OCDMA is mainly degraded by the interference from other simultaneous users, which is called multiuser interface (MUI). In the earlier OCDMA systems, an optical orthogonal code (OOC) is a collection of one-dimensional (1-D) binary sequences for OCDMA. To support many simultaneous users, the code needs provide good correlation properties. Such properties usually achieved through the use of very long code sequences. In other word, very large bandwidth expansion is required, creating a stringent requirement on speed of encoding and correlating hardware. To overcome this problem and hence multi-dimensional coding method such as two-dimensional (2-D) code and three-dimensional (3-D) code were then proposed .
In this study, we propose two new 3-D hybrid matrices and associated decoding scheme for a wavelength/time/spatial OCDMA systems used for digital and analog transmissions and we discuss code construction, code properties, system structure and system performance.

中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
CONTENTS IV
LIST OF FIGURES V
LIST OF TABLES VI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 From Radio CDMA to Optical CDMA 1
1.2 The Development of OCDMA History 3
Chapter 2 Overviews on Optical CDMA Coding 5
2.1 Maximal-Length Sequence Codes 5
2.2 Complementary Walsh-Hadamard Codes 6
2.3 Modified Prime Codes 8
2.4 Modified Quadratic Congruence Codes 9
2.5 Carrier-Hopping Prime Codes 12
Chapter 3 Hybrid CHP/MP Coding 14
3.1 Code Construction and Code Properties 14
3.2 System Design 17
3.3 Performance Analysis 19
Chapter 4 Hybrid MQC/MQC/M-sequence Coding 22
4.1 Code Construction 22
4.2 System Design 22
4.3 Performance Analysis 24
4.4 Simulation 33
Chapter 5 Conclusions 35
REFERENCES 36
Appendix i



[1]J.A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber network—Part I: Fundamental principles, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 37, pp. 824–833, Aug. 1989.

[2]J.A. Salehi and C.A. Brackett, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber netowrk-part II: System performance analysis, IEEE Trans. Common., vol.37, pp. 834-842, Aug. 1989.

[3]H. Heo, S.S. Min, Y.H. Won, Y. Yeon , B.K. Kim , B.W. Kim, “A new family of 2-D wavelength-time spreading code for optical code-division multiple-access system with balanced dection,“ IEEE Photon Technol Lett., vol. 16, no. 9, pp 2189-2191, 2004.

[4]C.C. Yang and J.F. Huang, “Two-dimensional M-matrices coding in spatial/frequency optical CDMA networks, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 168-170, Jan. 2003.

[5]S. Kim, K. Yu, and N. Park, “A new family of space/ wavelength/time spread three-dimensional optical codes for OCDMA networks, J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 502-511, Apr. 2000.

[6]B.C. Yeh, C.H. Lin and J.S. Wu, “Noncoherent Spectral/Time/Spatial Optical CDMA System Using 3-D Perfect Differemce Codes, J. Lightwave Technol., vol. 27, no 6 pp. 744-759, Mar . 2009.

[7]G.C. Yang and W.C. Kwong, “Performance Comparison of Multiwavelength CDMA and WDMA + CDMA for Fiber-Optic Networks, IEEE Trans. Common., vol.45, pp. 1426-1434, Nov. 1997.

[8]R. L. Pickholtz, D. L. Schilling, and L. B. Milstein, “Theory of spread-spectrum communications - a tutorial, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. Com-30, no.5, pp. 855-884,May 1982.

[9]G. R. Cooper, and R. W. Nettleton, A Spread Spectrum Technique for High-Capacity Mobile Communications, IEEE Trans. Vehicular Tech., Vol. VT-27, no.4, pp.264-275, Nov. 1978.

[10]E. H. Dinan, and B. Jabbari, “Spreading Codes for Direct Sequence CDMA and Wideband CDMA Cellular Networks, IEEE Communication Magazine, pp. 48-54,Sep. 1998.

[11]R. Gold, “Optimal binary sequences for spread spectrum multiplexing, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. IT-13, pp. 619-621, Oct. 1967.

[12]T. Kasami, Weight Distribution Formula for Some Class of Cyclic Codes, Coordinated Science Lab., Univ. IL, Urbana. Tech. Rep., R-285, Apr. 1966.

[13]TIA/EIA Interim Standard-95, Mobile Station-Base Station Compatibility Standard for Dual-Mode Wideband Spread Spectrum Cellular System, July 1993.

[14]K. G. Beauchamp. Walsh Functions and their Applications. London: Acadamic Press, 1975.

[15]H. H. Chen, J. F. Yeh, and N. Suehiro, “A multicarrier CDMA architecture based on orthogonal complementary codes for new generations of wideband wireless communications, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 126-135, Oct 2001.

[16]C. F. Lam, “To Spread or Not to Spread: The Myths of Optical CDMA, IEEE LEOS 2000 Annual Mtg., vol. 2, pp. 810–811, Nov. 2000.

[17]A. Stok, and E.H. Sargent,Lighting the local area: optical code-division multiple access and quality of service provisioning IEEE Network, vol. 14, no. 6, pp.42 –46, Nov.-Dec. 2000.

[18]Y.G. Wen, Y. Zhang, and L.K. Chen, “On Architecture and Limitation of Optical Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Networks Using Optical-Orthogonal-Code (OOC)/Wavelength Label, Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 43-70, Jan. 2002.

[19]R. Dixon, “Why spread spectrum?, IEEE Communications Soc. Mag., vol. 13, pp. 21-25, July 1975.

[20]R. Scholtz, “The spread spectrum concept, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 748-755, August 1977.

[21]R. Dixon, Spread Spectrum Systems with Commercial Applications, Wiley- Interscience, New York, 1994.

[22]M. Sust, “Code division multiple access for commercial communications, in Review of Radio Science 1992-1994, pp. 155-179, International Union of Radio Science (URSI).

[23]D. Grosbie, “The new space race: satellite mobile communications, IEE Review, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 111-114, May 1993.

[24]Z. Wei, H.M.H. Shalaby, and H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, “Modified quadratic congruencecodes for fiber Bragg-grating-based spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems, J. Lightwave Technology, vol. 19, pp. 1274 – 1281, Sept. 2001.

[25]E.D.J. Smith, R.J. Blaikie, and D.P. Taylor, “Performance enhancement of spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA using pulse-position modulation, IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 46, pp. 1176-1185, Sept. 1998.

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