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研究生:林宥岑
研究生(外文):Yu-ChenLin
論文名稱:五至十二歲孩童之書寫表現力學分析
論文名稱(外文):Kinetic Analysis of Handwriting Performance among 5 to 12 Years Old Children
指導教授:郭立杰郭立杰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Chieh Kuo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:職能治療學系碩博士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:105
中文關鍵詞:孩童書寫力量力學精細動作
外文關鍵詞:childrenhandwritingforcekineticsfine motor
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背景及目的:書寫能力對於孩童在學校生活的適應以及課業的表現上相當重要,因此評估書寫表現的工具也相當的多,然而常見的書寫或發展評量,多是量測字跡的清晰度、書寫速度以及部分人因工學因子如握筆姿勢等,然在針對手與筆接觸介面之直接證據上,目前握筆力學的部分則多無法使用量化的方式量測,因此本研究將以量化的方式來分析書寫時握筆力量及筆尖力量,進而提供臨床人員從不同的面向來瞭解孩童書寫的表現。
研究方法:本研究除使用一可同時偵測握筆力量及筆尖力量之動力學量測筆,以及描寫作業量測書寫力學外,設計出「調節範圍」、「力量波動值」、「衝量」以及「衝量比值」四項力學參數以分析書寫表現,同時合併使用布魯茵克斯-歐西瑞斯基動作精練度評量工具之精細動作測驗,量測5到12歲孩童精細動作表現,以瞭解書寫力學與精細動作表現之間的相關性,本研究於高雄及台南招募39位幼稚園大班孩童以及142位國民小學普通班孩童參與研究進行。
研究結果:使用簡單直線迴歸計算力量量測器與黃金標準值之關係,決定係數R2達0.9986 (p〈0.001),可證實第二代動力學量測筆具有量好的效度,成人使用動力學量測筆進行描寫測驗之十天後再測信度為0.79 (p=0.000),即動力學量測筆用於描寫測驗時具有良好的信度。性別比較方面,女生書寫的速度較男生快,年齡比較部分,發現年齡越大書寫的速度和流暢度會越佳。手部操弄精準度與力量波動值之相關度達中度以上(Pearson Correlation Coefficient: -0.549~-0.636, p〈0.001)。
衝量比值部分,大拇指為0.46±0.07、食指為0.32±0.07、中指為0.22±0.08,且發現字體大小不同,並不會影響中指之調節範圍,因此推論中指在三指中是扮演穩定筆桿的角色,大拇指及食指是控制運筆的角色。本研究亦計算出一般發展孩童筆尖之衝量比值為0.15±0.06,當衝量比值在此範圍外,即代表施力的方式與一般孩童有異,若筆尖衝量比值小於此範圍值則握筆的施力較一般孩童大,若筆尖衝量比值高於此範圍則下筆力道會較一般孩童大,此結果可做為臨床人員在評估及介入孩童運筆時之參考,本研究特別將三指及筆尖衝量比值分開運算,能更精確的幫助臨床人員瞭解書寫時不同手指施力及下筆力道的狀況,可明確的辨別出若出現異常施力時,是那個手指或下筆動作所造成。本研究所設計之動力學量測法及設計之力學參數,測量出運筆時各手指直接接觸筆桿的施力表現,可以更精確、更直接的瞭解運筆時各手指施力狀況,不同於過去研究是從寫出的筆跡去探討,能更直接的從力量來源分析施力狀況。

Handwriting is a very important and basic ability for children mastering their school-life and academic performance. Numerous tools have been developed for evaluating various aspects of handwriting performances, such as legibility, writing speed and grip forms, etc. However, few investigations using quantitative descriptions to evaluate the kinetics of handwriting were found in the literature owing to the lack of suitable assessment tools.
Hence, this study quantified the kinetic performance of handwriting tasks with 5 to 12 years old children via a custom Force Acquisition Pen (FAP) system. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the effect of age and gender on handwriting kinetics, 2) to study the effect of task differences on handwriting kinetics, and 3) to explore the relationship between children’s handwriting kinetics and the performance of fine motor tests among 5 to 12 years old children.
This study recruited 181 children from age 5 to 12, including 39 children from the top class in kindergarten and 142 children from Grade 2, 4, and 6 of elementary school in Tainan and Kaohsiung. A series of tracing tasks including lines (horizontal/vertical/ oblique), circles and numbers were administered to each child. While the children were asked to trace strokes, the contact force between the pen-tip to writing surface as well as digits to the pen-barrel were collected simultaneously with the FAP. The parameters, Modulation Range (MR), Number of Force Fluctuations (NFF), Impulse (I), Impulse Ratio (IR), were designed for describing the kinetic relationships between hand, pen and writing surface. In addition, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency performance-2 (BOT-2) was used to measure children’s fine motor skills which provided the information to explore the relationship between the fine motor skills and handwriting performance. The kinetic results indicated the girls wrote faster than the boys did. The elder children showed better writing fluency, more mature force applying pattern and used less time to write than the younger children did. There was a moderate relationship (r= -0.549~ -0.636, p〈.001) between Manual Dexterity scores and NFF which determined that handwriting may be relevant to the skills of manual dexterity. IR results were thumb 〉 index finger 〉 middle finger (0.46±0.07 〉 0.32±0.07 〉 0.22±0.08) which indicated that middle finger plays as a stabilizer but the thumb and index finger play as the controllers when performing the writing tasks. The results of writing kinetics were divided into 4 categories (by age) as the developmental norms for 5 to 12 years old children.
The findings of this study may provide a reference for therapists and teachers planning interventions for children with handwriting problems. Recommendations for future studies may include the design of various pen styles (barrel size or shape) for further investigation the handwriting performances in depth and also combination of motion capture system to integrate the kinematics and kinetics of handwriting.

第一章、 緒論 1
第一節、研究動機與重要性 1
第二節、研究目的 3
第三節、研究假設 4
第二章、 文獻回顧 5
第一節、孩童書寫發展 5
第二節、孩童握筆發展 7
第三節、影響書寫表現之因子 11
第四節、性別差異對書寫的影響 13
第五節、書寫評估工具 15
第六節、探討書寫力學相關之研究 18
第七節、總結 20
第三章、 研究方法 21
第一節、研究對象 21
第二節、研究設備及設計 22
第三節、研究程序 29
第四節、數據與資料統計分析 32
第四章、 研究結果 36
第一節、第二代動力學量測筆之信效度檢測 36
第二節、受測者基本資料 38
第三節、年齡、性別對書寫動力學參數之影響 39
第四節、字體大小、筆畫對書寫動力學參數之影響 50
第五節、書寫力學參數與精細動作表現的關係 56
第六節、其他結果 59
第五章、 討論 61
第一節、第二代動力學量測筆之信效度檢測 61
第二節、受測者基本資料 63
第三節、年齡、性別對書寫力學參數之影響 64
第四節、字體大小、筆畫對書寫力學參數之影響 69
第五節、書寫力學參數與精細動作表現的關係 72
第六節、其他結果 74

第六章、 結論 75
第一節、總結 75
第二節、臨床應用與學術發展 76
第三節、研究限制及未來研究建議 77
參考文獻 78



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