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研究生:顏靖容
研究生(外文):Doris Ching-jung Yen
論文名稱:噶瑪蘭語之依附詞(東台灣,南島語)
論文名稱(外文):Clitics in Kavalan (East Formosan, Austronesian)
指導教授:畢樂仁
指導教授(外文):Loren A. Billings
口試委員:李佩容
口試委員(外文):Arthur Holmer
口試日期:2012-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:172
中文關鍵詞:依附詞噶瑪蘭語南島語作格語言優選理論
外文關鍵詞:clisisKavalanAustronesianergativityOptimality Theory
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本論文旨於探討噶瑪蘭語(東台灣,南島語)之依附詞(clitic)的特性。第一章介紹此語言之研究背景。第二章呈現噶瑪蘭語的音韻和構詞句法系統,以及說明其作格語言(ergative language)的格位系統。第三章則透過依附詞可附著於不同詞類的特性來判別哪些黏著詞素是依附詞,並呈現依附詞與句中其他自由詞素之相對位置。第四章分析兩個以上(含)相鄰之依附詞於依附詞串(clitic cluster)內部之相對詞序。最後,第五章總結此論文,並處理兩個尚未解決的議題,包含探究數個依附詞串於句中相對位置為何,以及如何以代名詞來表達語境中的語用焦點。
本論文以構詞句法證據來說明噶瑪蘭語中附著性作格(ergative)與通格(absolutive)人稱代名詞,以及其他非代名詞附著性詞素為依附詞。根據依附詞出現於句中之位置,可將其分類為詞組(phrasal)依附詞,以及鄰近中心語(head-adjacent)依附詞(亦或是混合此兩種類型的依附詞)。我們接著針對依附詞串內部的依附詞之相對詞序作討論。本文發現若通格代名詞與兩個副詞詞組依附詞緊鄰出現成一詞串,其間的排列次序可允許兩種詞序自由變異:代名詞排列於兩個副詞依附詞串後,稱此為遞移順序(transitive ordering),或者置於兩個副詞依附詞中間,為非遞移順序(nontransitive ordering)。本文以優選理論(Optimality Theory)為理論框架,提出噶瑪蘭語依附詞串內部的依附詞詞序排列具有兩套不同文法,兩種文法唯一的差異在於一制約條件(constraint)分別在不同的文法採不同的排序順位(ranking),因此產生兩種變異的詞序。
This thesis investigates the properties of clitics in Kavalan (East Formosan, Austronesian). Chapter 1 introduces background information about this language. Chapter 2 presents the phonological system and morphosyntax of Kavalan, arguing for an ergative alignment of cases. Chapter 3 then establishes which bound morphemes are clitics in Kavalan, primarily using the promiscuity-of-attachment test, and demonstrates the position of a clitic relative to the free elements within the clause, whereas chapter 4 analyzes the ordering of two or more adjacent clitics relative to each other. Finally, chapter 5 summarizes this thesis and tackles two remaining issues: the ordering of multiple clitic clusters and how pronouns convey pragmatic focus in Kavalan.
This thesis reports that in Kavalan the clitichood of two bound personal pronominal paradigms (ERG and ABS) and bound nonpronominal (mostly tense-aspect-modality) markers using morphosyntactic evidence can be classified into phrasal and head-adjacent types (or a mixture of the two). We then focus on the cluster-internal ordering of clitics. If an ABS and two post-initial phrasal adverbial clitics co-occur in a cluster, two alternative orderings are found: ABS after both adverbial clitics (transitive) or between them (nontransitive). We explain this variation using Optimality Theory, proposing a constraint that rules out consecutive adverbial clitics ranked differently in two distinct grammars of Kavalan.
Contents
Acknowledgements i
Abstract (in Chinese) ii
Abstract (in English) iii
Contents iv
List of Tables vi
Abbreviations vii
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Background about the language 1
1.1.1 Historical record and current situation 1
1.1.2 Linguistic prehistory 4
1.2 Rationale for the study 6
1.3 Methodology 8
1.4 Organization of the thesis 10
Chapter 2: Sketch of Kavalan grammar 12
2.1 Phonology 12
2.1.1 The uvular fricative 13
2.1.2 Vowels and glides 18
2.2 Morphosyntax 20
Chapter 3: External ordering of clitics 33
3.1 Review of the theoretical literature 33
3.1.1 Definitions of clitichood 33
3.1.2 Types of clitic positioning 39
3.2 Establishing the inventory of clitics 50
3.2.1 The ERG pronominal paradigm 53
3.2.2 The tense-aspect-modality markers 58
3.2.3 The ABS pronominal paradigm 69
3.2.4 The relativizer /=aj/ 71
3.3 Clitic types in Kavalan 72
3.3.1 The ERG pronominal paradigm 73
3.3.2 The tense-aspect-modality markers 73
3.3.3 The ABS pronominal paradigm 80
3.3.4 The relativizer /=aj/ 82
Chapter 4: The cluster-internal ordering of clitics 85
4.1 Previous studies on clitic sequences 87
4.1.1 Internal organization of the clitic cluster 88
4.1.2 Optimality Theory 98
4.2 The internal-ordering facts in Kavalan 101
4.2.1 Transitive ordering 102
4.2.2 Nontransitive ordering 112
4.3 Optimality-theoretic analysis 118
Chapter 5: Conclusion 133
5.1 Multiple clitic clusters 133
5.2 Pragmatic focus and topicality 143
5.3 Recapitulation of this thesis 149
References 151

List of Tables
(1.1) Distribution of the Kavalan locations (from north to south) 3
(1.2) The primary informants 9
(2.1) Consonant inventory 12
(2.2) Inventory of vowel monophthongs 13
(2.16) Case markers 28
(2.18) Inventory of personal pronouns (locative paradigms not included) 30
(3.8) Characterization of the eight clitic types in the Klavans model 43
(3.15) Published analyses of bound personal pronouns in Kavalan 51
(3.16) Published analyses of bound nonpronominal markers in Kavalan 52
(3.57) Established clitic types in Kavalan 84
(4.1) Overt combinations of ERG and ABS personal pronouns in Kavalan 86
(4.4) Overt combinations of NOM and DFLT personal pronouns in Mantauran Rukai 90
(4.5) Overt combinations of GEN and DFLT personal pronouns in Mantauran Rukai 91
(4.6) Overt combinations of personal pronouns in Binukid 93
(4.7) Overt combinations of personal pronouns in Obo Manobo 94
(4.8) Overt combinations personal pronouns in Tagalog 95
(4.18) Co-occurring TAM Clitics in Kavalan 105

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