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研究生:陳思妤
研究生(外文):Chen, Shih-Yu
論文名稱:亞洲開發銀行教育援助政策之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study on the Asian Development Bank’s Educational Aid Policies
指導教授:鍾宜興鍾宜興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Zhong, Yi-Xing
口試委員:詹盛如鄭以萱
口試委員(外文):Chan,Sheng-JuCheng, I-Hsuan
口試日期:2012-07-02
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立暨南國際大學
系所名稱:國際文教與比較教育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2013
畢業學年度:101
語文別:中文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:教育援助教育援助政策多邊開發銀行亞洲開發銀行
外文關鍵詞:Educational AidEducational Aid PolicyMultilateral Development BanksAsian Development Bank
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本研究旨於探討亞洲開發銀行教育援助政策,以增進國內對亞洲開發銀行及多邊開發銀行教育援助政策之認識。本研究採文件分析法,研究目的為:1.探討亞洲開發銀行機構發展歷程與成立宗旨 2.分析亞洲開發銀行組織與管理制度變遷與決策歷程 3.探討亞洲開發銀行教育援助政策之演變與影響因素 4.釐清亞洲開發銀行教育援助政策發展之特色與待加強處。
亞銀為亞洲地區區域多邊開發銀行,於1966年成立以協助亞洲地區發展中國家社經發展。亞銀主要教育援助行動項目為貸款、贈款、技術援助、專業諮詢、進行相關研究等。亞銀教育援助貸款、贈款項目有三:硬貸款、亞洲開發基金軟貸款、特別基金。亞銀教育援助貸款計畫方案決策歷程分五階段:國家夥伴策略、準備、批准、執行、結案與評鑑。
亞銀至今共進行613項教育援助計畫、投注約82億美元,其中學前與基礎教育佔39%、技職教育與訓練佔21%、中等教育佔12%、教育部門發展佔12%、高等教育佔11%、非正式教育佔5%。亞銀教育援助政策在人力資本論、教育為人權、新自由主義等概念影響下,自1970、1980年代重視技職教育訓練等有助經濟發展政策,轉向1990年代重視全民教育、國家教育部門整體發展等教育減貧、自由化政策。2000年後亞銀更重視教育品質成效、私部門合作等教育發展議題,並朝向2020年重視教育管理效能、全民學習、市場需求聯結、研究創新能力發展等教育發展邁進。
由於世銀等重要國際組織、日本等亞洲地區內會員國影響,使亞銀教育援助政策具有國際化、區域化兩種趨勢,使亞銀教育援助政策緊隨國際潮流發展也同時反映亞洲地區區域特色。亞銀教育援助政策發展仍有許多需待加強之處,如:1. 教育援助資源分配較不平衡 2.透明度問題 3.政策過於獨斷,忽略受援國意見4.重要股東國左右政策走向 5.理事席次未因會員國不斷成長有所調整。

The aim of this study is to export the Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies, as hope to enhance the understanding of Asian Development Bank and other Multilateral Development Bank’s educational aid policies. This study adopted the document analysis method as for following purposes: 1. to explore Asian Development Bank’s missions and this institute’s development 2. to describe the development of Asian Development Bank’s organizational structure, management system and projects decision making process. 3. to analysis the development and the influence factors of Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies. 4. to clarify the features and deficiencies of Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies.
Asian Development Bank is the regional multiple development bank of Asia, which established in 1966, as to assist the development of developing countries in Asia. Asian Development Bank’s main educational aid projects are: loan, grant, technical assistance, consulting and research. The loan and grant projects including hard loan, soft loan and special fund. Asian Development Bank’s loan project cycle has five stages: country partnership strategy, prepare, approve, implement, closure and evaluation.
So far Asian Development Bank has established 613 educational aid projects and invested 8.2 billion dollars. In these educational aid projects:pre-school and basic education took 36%, technical education and training took 21%, secondary education took 12%, education sector development took 12%, higher education took 11%, informal education took 5%. Influenced by Human Captial theory, education as a human right and Neo-liberalism, Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies gradually changed in 40 years. 1970s and 1980s, Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies focus on technical education and training area which helps economic progress. 1990s, Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies turn it focus on Education for All and education sector development areas, as to help reduce povety and liberalize the education development. After 2000s, Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies stress on the education development issues such as education quality and outcome, private sector cooperation. Then to 2020s, Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies emphasize on education development issues such as education management efficiency, Learning for All, market connection, research and innovation ability.
Influenced by important international organizations such as World Bank and Asian member countries such as Japan, Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies became internationalized and regionalized at the same time. This made Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies development not only just keep catching up the international trend but also reflect the Asian features. There also exist some deficiencies in Asian Development Bank’s educational aid policies: 1. educational aid resources distribution slightly imbalance 2. openness issue 3. arbitrary, neglect aid-receiving countries’ opinions 4.large shareholders control the policies development 5. the number of member of council did not adjust when member continuously increased.

第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的與問題………………………………………4
第三節 研究方法………………………………………………5
第四節 研究限制………………………………………………5
第五節 名詞釋義………………………………………………5

第二章 多邊開發銀行之發展與教育援助政策之演變
第一節 多邊開發銀行機構之發展……………………………7
第二節 多邊開發銀行教育援助政策之演變………………23

第三章 亞洲開發銀行發展與組織運作
第一節 草創期:1966-1972……………………………………………………49
第二節 減貧運動開展期:1972-1981…………………………………58
第三節 社會部門發展期:1981-1989…………………………………67
第四節 全民教育投入期:1989-1999…………………………………75
第五節 教育智庫轉型期:1999至今………………………87
第六節 業務與方案決策歷程………………………………110

第四章 亞洲開發銀行教育援助政策分析
第一節 亞洲開發銀行教育援助政策發展之影響思想………121
第二節 教育援助國際趨勢之影響:世界銀行的追隨者……129
第三節 區域自主意識之抬頭:亞洲國家主導力量抬頭……134

第五章 結論……………………………………………………………141

參考書目
中文書目…………………………………………………………147
英文書目…………………………………………………………148

附錄
亞洲開發銀行教育部門主要出版品與重點摘要………………160
亞洲開發銀行特別基金項目表………………………………165

表次
表 3-1 亞洲開發銀行會員國成員(1966-1972)………………………………………………50
表 3-2 亞洲開發銀行理事席次(1966-1972)……………………………………………………55
表 3-3 亞洲開發銀行理事席次(1972-1981)……………………………………………………59
表 3-4 亞洲開發銀行教育援助方案(1976-1981)……………………………………………66
表 3-5 亞洲開發銀行理事席次(1981-1989)……………………………………………………68
表 3-6 亞洲開發銀行教育援助方案(1981-1989)……………………………………………73
表 3-7 亞洲開發銀行理事席次(1989-1999)……………………………………………………76
表 3-8 亞洲開發銀行教育援助方案(1989-1993)……………………………………………84
表 3-9 亞洲開發銀行教育援助方案(1993-1999)……………………………………………86
表 3-10 亞洲開發銀行會員國成員(1999-2012)………………………………………………88
表 3-11 亞洲開發銀行理事席次(1999-2012)……………………………………………………89
表 3-12 亞洲開發銀行教育援助方案(1999-2004)…………………………………………103
表 3-13 亞洲開發銀行教育援助贈款方案計畫合作夥伴及計畫總數概況…106
表 3-14 亞洲開發銀行教育援助方案(2004-2013)…………………………………………108
表 3-15 亞洲開發銀行亞洲開發基金第十次補充捐款國家………………111
表 4-1 世界銀行、亞洲開發銀行教育援助重要政策年表…………………130
表 4-2 亞洲開發銀行歷年教育援助計畫……………………………………137

圖次
圖 1-1世界現有多邊開發銀行概況………………………………………………11
圖 1-2 多邊開發銀行機構現有國際援助方式……………………………………17
圖 1-3 多邊開發銀行執行貸款方案、計畫基本流程六階段……………………20
圖 3-1 亞洲開發銀行組織結構圖(1966-1972)………………………………………………………53
圖 3-2 亞洲開發銀行1966-1972年教育援助計畫地區分布情況………………57
圖 3-3 亞洲開發銀行組織結構圖(1972-1976)………………………………………………………61
圖 3-4 亞洲開發銀行組織結構圖(1976-1981)………………………………………………………62
圖 3-5 亞洲開發銀行1972-1976年教育援助計畫地區分布情況………………64
圖 3-6 亞洲開發銀行1976-1981年教育援助計畫分類情況……………………65
圖 3-7 亞洲開發銀行1976-1981年教育援助計畫地區分布情況………………66
圖 3-8 亞洲開發銀行組織結構圖(1981-1989)………………………………………………………70
圖 3-9 亞洲開發銀行1981-1989年教育援助計畫地區分布情況………………74
圖 3-10 亞洲開發銀行組織結構圖(1989-1993)……………………………………………………78
圖 3-11 亞洲開發銀行組織結構圖(1993-1999)……………………………………………………80
圖 3-12 亞洲開發銀行1989-1993年教育援助計畫地區分布情況……………84
圖 3-13 亞洲開發銀行1993-1999年教育援助計畫地區分布情況……………86
圖 3-14 亞洲開發銀行組織結構圖(1999-2004)……………………………………………………91
圖 3-15亞洲開發銀行組織結構圖(2004-2012)………………………………………………………94
圖 3-16 亞洲開發銀行1999-2004年教育援助計畫地區分布情況……………103
圖 3-17 亞洲開發銀行2004-2012年教育援助計畫地區分布情況……………108
圖 3-18 亞洲開發銀行方案決策歷程圖…………………………………………118

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英文書目
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African Development Bank (2009). Checklist for Gender Mainstreaming in the Education Sector with a Special Focus on Higher Education, Science and Technology Sub Sector. Retrieved from http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Policy-Documents/Gender%20education%20checklist%20-sunita-12-01-09.pdf

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