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研究生:鐘正宜
研究生(外文):Chung, Cheng-Yi
論文名稱:機械視覺之加工補正研究
論文名稱(外文):A study of manufacture compensation with machine vision
指導教授:徐瑞坤
指導教授(外文):Hsu, Ray-Quan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:工學院精密與自動化工程學程
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:自由軟體機械視覺治具補正值
外文關鍵詞:freewareMachine Visionjigcompensation
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:10
  • 點閱點閱:775
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  • 下載下載:128
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究的目的是使用自由軟體,開發出在數控加工機上,運用自由軟體OpeCV機械視覺(Machine Vision)函式庫、dxflib DXF轉換函式庫與OpenGL繪圖函式庫,以商用開發工具Visual Studio C++ MFC為平台,加上 Dalsa Sepera LT CCD開發函式庫,新代控制器OCAPI整合開發介面,整合撰寫出一套完整的加工補正系統。
數位噴印的產品製程中,產品特性是輕薄、印出的內容會有小變形,若要將印製的圖形以無治具的方式切下,傳統的NC 加工的補正方式是達不到的,因為尋找加工基準將極為困難而無效率,原因就是工件極薄,上料後的位置,前後無法一致,若又遇到需將工件沿變形的輪廓切下,傳統的加工補正方式幾乎一籌莫展。
若以機械視覺做為加工補正的工具,可以達到無治具、小變形之加工補正。利用工件輪廓邊緣,印上定位點,做為工件位置定位與輪廓變形的參考依據。前述定位點以機械視覺辨識出位置後,計算出位置與加工路徑補正,加入圖形座標中。之後圖形座標轉出成為NC程式碼,直接透過新代控制器OCAPI函式庫,循序發出加工單節指令至控制器中進行加工。

The study used freeware to integrate and write a comprehensive
processing/compensation system for numerical control machines that employs freeware OpeCV machine version library, dxflib DXF conversion library, and OpenGL graphic library. It also applies the commercial development tool Visual Studio C++ MFC as the platform, as well as the Dalsa Sepera LT CCD development library and the Syntec controller OCAPI for integrating and developing the interface.

During the digital print product manufacturing process, products have the characteristic of lightness and thinness and the printed content shows slight transformation. The compensation method of traditional NC processing cannot be used to cut printed images without gauges. Because of the extremely thin work pieces, and inconsistent positions after materials are loaded, identifying the processing datum is difficult and inefficient. We also cannot use the traditional processing/compensation method to cut work pieces along the outlines of distortions.

Machine vision can be used as a tool for processing and compensating to achieve slight distortion and no jig and compensation. We marked anchor points along the outline of the work pieces as a reference for their positioning and outline distortion. After the positions of the anchor points were identified using machine vision, the positions and processing path compensations were calculated and were added to graphics coordinates. Then, the graphics coordinates were converted into NC codes. Finally, we used the Syntec controller OCAPI library to send processing single-block commands to controllers in sequence for processing.

第一章 緒論...............................................1
1.1 研究背景...........................................1
1.2 研究動機與目的.....................................2
第二章 文獻回顧...........................................4
2.1 名詞釋義.................... ......................4
2.1.1 機械視覺(Machine Vision)...........................4
2.1.2 圖素(Pixel)........................................4
2.1.3 邊緣偵測(edge detect) .............................4
2.1.4 模式比對(Pattern Match)............................4
2.1.5 FOV(Field Of View).................................5
2.2 機械視覺原理.......................................5
2.2.1 影像檔格式(Image Format)...........................6
2.2.2 點陣資料(Raster Image)格式與取樣(Sampling).........9
2.2.3 影像過濾(Image Filtering).........................10
2.2.4 臨界值(Threshold).................................10
2.2.5 模式比對(Pattern Match)...........................11
2.3 機械加工補正......................................13
2.3.1 工件置放補正......................................13
2.3.2 加工路徑補正......................................14
第三章 系統架構規劃與方法................................18
3.1 硬體架構..........................................18
3.1.1 選擇相機..........................................18
3.1.2 選擇相機的影像擷取介面............................18
3.1.3 機械視覺的光學與電腦系統..........................20
3.2 軟體架構...........................................21
3.2.1基於MFC之SDI介面.................................24
3.2.2 OpenGL............................................25
3.2.3 DXF...............................................26
3.2.4 OpenCV............................................28
3.2.5 控制器與控制器API.................................30
第四章 系統實作..........................................31
4.1 NC 機器與視覺硬體.................................31
4.2 數位印刷與後製流程................................31
4.3 軟體系統..........................................34
4.3.1 DXF輸入與資料庫建立...............................34
4.3.2 資料儲存與讀取....................................36
4.3.3 OpenGL 繪圖.......................................38
4.3.4 CCD取像與OpenCV 定位點辨識.......................40
4.3.5 控制器SDK.........................................40
4.3.6 刀具與加工參數設定................................41
4.3.7 NC Code 產生器....................................41
4.4 圖層管理..........................................42
4.4 研究結果比較......................................42
第五章 研究結論..........................................47
5.1 研究結論..........................................47
5.2 未來的計畫........................................48

[1] Gary Bradski , Adrian Kaehler, Learning OpenCV, O’Reilly,September 2008,First Edition.
[2] Robert Laganiere, OpenCV 2 Computer Vision Application Programming Cookbook , Pocket Publishing Ltd., May 2011.
[3] G. J. Awcock and Thomas Awcock, Applied image processing, McGRAW-HILL,1996.
[4] I.T. Young, J.J. Gerbrands and L.J van Vliet ,Fundamentals of Image Processing, Delft University of Technology,1998.
[5] National Instrument,IMAQ Vision Concepts Manual, National Instrument,June 2003.
[6] Roberto Brunelli , Template Matching Techniques in Computer Vision,John Wiley & Sons Ltd,2009.
[7] Ramesh Jain, Rangachar Kasturi, Brain G.Schunc,Machine Vision, McGRAW-HILL,1995
[8] Nafis Ahmad, A.F.M.Anwarul Haque, “Manufacture Feature Rcognition Of Parts Using DXF Files”,4th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering ,Dhaka, Bangladesh,pp VI 111-115,Decmber 26-28 2001.
[9] J.P. Lewis, “Fast Template Matching”, Vision Interface 95,Canadian Image Processing Recognition Society, pp.120-123, May 15-19 1995.
[10] Kai Briechle, Uwe D. Hanebeck, “Template Matching Using Fast Normalized Cross Correlation”, Proc. SPIE 4387, 95, March 20 2001.
[11]Dave Shreiner, OpenGL Programming Guide, Pearson Education, Inc.2010
[12] R. Hewitt,”Seeing With OpenCV, a Computer Vision Library”, SERVO magazine,2007, pp. 62–66.
[13] Frank D. Luna, Intrduction to 3D Game Programming with DirectX 10, Wordware Publish, Inc., 2008.
[14] Galina Istatkova,”Object-Oriented Scientific Visualization”, International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies, CompSysTech’2003.

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