跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.194.255) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/16 11:33
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:唐寧
研究生(外文):Ning Tang
論文名稱:受售價影響的參考價格下的競爭
論文名稱(外文):Competition under price-affected reference price
指導教授:曾富祥曾富祥引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fu-Shiang Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:工業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:保留價格參考價格競爭
外文關鍵詞:Reference PriceReservation PriceCompetition
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:388
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:118
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
  現今的產品市場競爭越來越激烈,許多不同的產品與供應商充斥在消費者所面對的市場中,利用不同的通路管道來銷售商品或服務。由於競爭如此的激烈,也使得定價環境要求更好、更快、且比平常更頻繁的定價決策。當競爭越多,影響消費者的購買行為也會越快。因此,定價策略不僅影響了廠商的利潤多寡,而且也會影響消費者的購買行為。因此,在研究中,我們討論在競爭下該如何訂定最佳定價策略。我們建立一個在固定銷售期間銷售產品的競爭定價模型,在研究當中,我們結合保留價格為內部參考價格,售價為外部參考價格來形成消費者的效用函數,並利用參考價格函數來代表消費者的效用函數。
  我們假設消費者的參考價格分配受競爭者的價格影響,來建立一個消費者的效用模型。我們將發展出兩個模型來討論競爭如何影響消費者參考價格的變動。在模型一中假設我們為市場的進入者,當我們進入之後市場的總利潤減少且消費者的參考價格下降,而折扣活動是促進消費者短期需求一個很好的方式。此外,我們應用模型二來理解當精品與平價品在各自的市場以及進入同一個市場時的消費者參考價格的變化。不同品牌會互相影響各自的潛在消費者參考價格。
  因此,我們的研究目的就是發展一個在參考價格之下消費者認知的模型。此研究的貢獻在於兩個部分。第一,在先前的文獻中有提到參考價格與消費者效用間的關係是互相影響的,但卻沒有發展出一個完整的數學模型,而這正是我們這篇研究所著重的部分。第二,我們相信我們的研究結果將帶給管理者重要的涵義。將參考價格的影響模型化,使零售商可以更容易了解消費者對售價的認知而做出更好的定價策略。
  In the reality, there has more competition in the market, which change the customers’ purchase behavior rapidly. We construct a model to sell a product during a fixed selling period for compete suppliers. In our study, we use the reference price function to present the customers utility distribution. The concept of a reference price asserts that consumers make decisions based on both actual and perceived prices. We incorporate the term "reservation price" to refer to these internal reference price levels and “selling price” to refer to these external reference price levels for finding that how reference prices affect the customer’s perceptions of the product.
  We model the customer’s utilities of the product, proposed a model that reference price distribution is affected by price. In this paper, two models are developed to describe and illustrate how the customers’ reference price change in the competition. In model 1, suppose we are the entrants of specific product market, we find out that the total profit of specific market will decrease and customers’ reference prices will decrease, too. Moreover, discount activity is a good way to increase customers’ perception of product in short-term. Besides, we apply model 2 to realize how the competition affect customers’ reference price when the common brand and the luxury brand in the different market respectively and in the same market. The customers’ reference prices in different brands will influence each other.
  The contribution to the pricing literature is two fold. First, the relationship between reference prices and customer’s perceptions of the product has not been modeled and estimated in previous literature and we do so in this paper. Second, we believe our results have implications for retail managers. Modeling the impact of reference prices enables retailers to better manipulate the perceived transaction value—that is, the pleasure buyers get from taking advantage of a price deal.
Content I
List of tables III
List of figures IV
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1  Motivation 1
Chapter 2 Literature review 3
2.1  Reference price 3
2.2  Reservation price 9
2.3  Competition 9
Chapter 3 Model 14
3.1  Competitive pricing problem 14
3.2  The notations and demand function 15
3.3  The Total Expected Profit Function per period 17
3.4  Model without Competition 18
3.4.1 The structure of the reference price parameter, θ 18
3.4.2 The product characteristics – Parameter δi 20
3.4.3 The reference price converge parameter – Parameter ηi ( pi,t-1 ) 21
3.4.4 The selling channel – Parameter κi 22
3.4.5 The potential market share – Parameter λi 23
3.5  Model with Competition 24
3.5.1 The structure of the reference price parameter, θ 27
3.5.2 The competition effect function - Function g (r i,t ) 27

3.6  Example of Model with Competition 30
3.6.1 Example of the compete effect function - Function g (r i,t ) 30
3.6.2 The flexibility of competition effect - Parameter ωi 31
3.7  Basic model 32
3.7.1 Model 1 32
3.7.2 Model 2 35
Chapter 4 Numerical Example 37
4.1  Model 1 37
4.1.1 Situation 1. Monopoly Market 37
4.1.2 Situation 2. Duopoly Market 38
4.1.3 Situation 3. Duopoly Market with Discount 39
4.1.4 Profit comparison with three situations 40
4.2 Model 2 40
4.2.1 Situation1. Common brand in the monopoly market 41
4.2.2 Situation2. Luxury brand in the monopoly market 41
4.2.3 Situation3. Duopoly market with Common & Luxury brands 42
4.2.4 Profit comparison with three situations 43
Chapter 5 Sensitive analysis 44
5.1  The product characteristics – Parameter δi 44
5.2  The selling channel – Parameter κi 48
5.3  The potential market share – Parameter λi 51
5.4  The population in the potential market – Parameter Ni 53
5.6  The structure of the reference price parameter - Parameter θi 58
Chapter 6 Summary 65
Chapter 7 Future Research 68
Reference 70
1.Abhijit, B., and Edward A. B. (1991), “Contextual Effects of Reference Prices in Retail Advertisements”, The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 1-12
2.Ben, L., and Frank, A. (2010), “Pricing Strategy and the Formation and Evolution of Reference Price Perceptions in New Product Categories,” Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 27(9): 846–873
3.Bertrand, J. (1883), "Review of ''Theorie Mathematique de la Richesse Sociale et Recherches sur les Principes Mathematiques de la Richesse," Journal des Savants, pp. 499-508
4.Business, W. (1986), "Sales Gimmicks: Why Detroit Can''t Quit Cold Turkey" (July 21).
5.Chandrashekaran, R., and Jagpal, H. S. (1995), “Measuring internal reference price: Some preliminary results”, Pricing Strategy & Practice, Volume3, Number4; pp. 28-34
6.Cheng, A., Han, L., and Cao, C. (2011), ”The Empirical Research of Factors Influencing Share of Wallet in the B2B Market,” Journal of Service Science and Management, 4, 165-173
7.Della, B., Albert, J., and Kent, B. M. (1974), "The Influence of Adaptation Levels on Subjective Price Perceptions," in Scott Ward and Peter Wright (Eds.), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 1, Urbana, IL: Association for Consumer Research, 359-369.
8.Dhruv, G., Kent, B., and Monroe, R. K. (1998), “The Effects of Price-Comparison Advertising on Buyers'' Perceptions of Acquisition Value, Transaction Value, and Behavioral Intentions”,The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 46-59
9.Dirk, C. M., Bjoern, S., and Florian, U. S. (2012), “Reference Prices as Determinants of Business-to-Business Price Negotiation Outcomes: An Empirical Perspective from the Chemical Industry,” Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol. 48, Issue 1, pp. 92-106
10.Donald, R. L., and William, O. B. (1989), “Contextual Influences on Perceptions of Merchant-Supplied Reference Prices”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 55-66
11.Emery, F. (1969), "Some Psychological Aspects of Price," in Pricing Strategy, eds. Bernard Taylor and Gordon Wills, London: Staples Press, 98-111.
12.Eric, A. G. (1995), “The Impact of Reference Price Effects on the Profitability of Price Promotions”, Marketing Science, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 82-104
13.Galina, H., and Joao, A.C. S. (2009), "Do banks price their informational monopoly?", Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 93, No. 2, pp. 185–206
14.Glenn, E. M., and Russell, S. W. (1992),”An Empirical Analysis of Internal and External Reference Prices Using Scanner Data”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 62-70
15.Gurumurthy, K., and Russell, S. W. (1995), “Empirical Generalizations from Reference Price Research”, Marketing Science, Vol. 14, No. 3, Part 2 of 2: Special Issue on Empirical Generalizations in Marketing, pp. G161-G169
16.Hardie, B. G. S., Eric, J. J., and Peter, S. F. (1993), "Modeling Loss Aversion and Reference Dependence Effects on Brand Choice", Marketing Science, 12, 378-394.
17.Helson, H. (1964), Adaptation-Level Theory, New York: Harper & Row.
18.Henrik, K., and Tommy, G. (1997), “Adoption of cognitive reference points in negotiations,” Acta Psychologica, Vol. 97, Issue 3, pp. 277-288
19.Joel, E. U., William, O., Bearden, D. C. W. (1988),” The Effect of Plausible and Exaggerated Reference Prices on Consumer Perceptions and Price Search”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 95-110
20.John, L. C. (2011), “Using external reference price to reduce resistance to leisure service pricing increases,” Managing Leisure, Vol. 16, Issue 3, pp. 207-215
21.Joseph, M. K., and Robert, J. T. (1970), “Psychophysics of Prices”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 27-35
22.Kalwani, M. U., Yim, C. K., Heikki, J. R., and Yoshi, S. (1990), “A Price Expectation Model of Customer Brand Choice,” Journal of Marketing Research, 27 (August), 251-262.
23.Kalyanram, G., and John, D. C. L. (1994), "An Empirical Analysis of Latitude of Price Acceptance in Consumer Package Goods", Journal of Consumer Research, December 1994 (forthcoming).
24.Kent, B. M. ( 1973), “ Buyers'' Subjective Perceptions of Price”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 70-80
25.Klein, N. M., and Oglethorpe, J.E. (1987), “Cognitive Reference Points in Consumer Decision Making,” Advances of Consumer Research, (14), pp. 183-187.
26.Kristensen, H., and Gaerling, T. (1997), “Determinants of Buyers’ Aspiration and Reservation Price,” Journal of Economic Psychology, (18:5), pp. 487- 503.
27.Lattin, J. M., and Randolph, E. B. (1989), "Reference Effects of Price and Promotion on Brand Choice Behavior", Journal of Marketing Research, 26, 299-310.
28.Lichtenstein, D. R., Burton, S., and Karson, E. J. (1991). The effect of semantic cues on consumer perceptions of reference price ads. Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 380–391.
29.Merriam, W. (2001). WWWebster Dictionary [Online]. Retrieved February 22, 2001, from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary.htm
30.Mitter, C., and Siems, F.U. (2008), “Transfer Pricing for Internal Services and Products — The Link Between Accounting and Marketing.” In S. Rothenberger and F. Siems (Eds.), Pricing Perspectives. Marketing and Management Implications of New Theories and Applications, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, pp. 206-221.
31.Putler, D. S. (1992), "Incorporating Reference Price Effects into a Theory of Consumer Choice", Marketing Science, 11, 287-309.
32.Rajendran, K. N., and TellisReviewed, G. J. (1994), “Contextual and Temporal Components of Reference Price”, The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Jan., 1994), pp. 22-34
33.Richard, A. B., Lakshman, K., Tridib, M., and Raj, S. P. (1997), “A Comparative Analysis of Reference Price Models”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 202-214
34.Richard, T. (1985), “Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice”, Marketing Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 199-214
35.Russell, S. W. (1986), “A Reference Price Model of Brand Choice for Frequently Purchased Products”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 250-256
36.Russell, S. W. (1989), "A Multi-Stage Model of Choice Incorporating Reference Prices", Marketing Letters, 1, 27-36.
37.Siems, F.U., Goelzner, H., and Moosmayer, D.C. (2010) “Reference Compensation: A Transfer of Reference Price Theory to Human Resource Management,” Review of Managerial Science, in press (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11846-010-0055-0).
38.Siems, F.U., Goelzner, H., and Moosmayer, D.C. (2010), “Reference Compensation: A Transfer of Reference Price Theory to Human Resource Management,” Review of Managerial Science, in press (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11846-010-0055-0).
39.Tridib, M., and Purushottam, P. (2000), “An Investigation of Reference Price Segments”, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 246-258
40.Tridib, M., Raj, S. P., and Indrajit, S. (2005), “Reference Price Research: Review and Propositions”, The Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, No. 4, pp. 84-102
41.Yu, Z. (2005), “Environmental Protection: A Theory of Direct and Indirect Competition for Political Influence,” Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 269-286
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top