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研究生:凃淑茹
研究生(外文):Shu-Ju Tu
論文名稱:不同生長期韃靼蕎麥葉機能性成分及抗氧化活性之研究
論文名稱(外文):Functional composition and antioxidant activity of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) leaves at different growth stages
指導教授:吳思敬
指導教授(外文):She-Ching Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:韃靼蕎麥葉生長期芸香苷槲皮素γ-胺基丁酸麩胱甘肽抗氧化活性
外文關鍵詞:Tartary buckwheat leavesgrowth stagesrutinquercetinγ-amino butyric acidglutathioneantioxidative activities
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韃靼蕎麥葉為近年來新興之機能性作物,蕎麥種實本身富含營養及生理活性成分,具有抗氧化、降低血壓、防止內出血等多種功效。發芽後其嫩芽可作為芽菜或沙拉食用,其所含芸香苷 (rutin) 可預防毛細性中風等疾病。本研究係以不同生長期採收之葉片 (播種後15、30、45、60、75、90 及 105天),記錄其植株生長特性、一般組成分及胺基酸含量,並進一步分析抗氧化活性。結果顯示,播種後 15 天至 105 天植株高度 (8.8~96.4 cm)、葉片重量 (0.02~0.79 g) 以 60 天時變化最大,葉形由圓形初生子葉轉變成心型成熟葉。15 天至 105天韃靼蕎麥葉片一般組成分中之粗蛋白 (1.16~3.09%) 及粗灰分 (0.91~2.84%) 含量較高,其水分 (82.04~91.72%) 隨生長期增加而降低。葉片中富含 17 種胺基酸,其中以麩胺酸 (15.90~29.27 mg/g D.W.)、白胺酸 (11.82~21.93 mg/g D.W.) 及天門冬胺酸 (12.55~21.46 mg/g D.W.) 含量較高,且含有禾本科植物所缺乏之離胺酸 (8.28~15.69 mg/g D.W.)。總胺基酸含量以播種後 60 天 (219.63 mg/g D.W.) 最高。並分析 15 天至 105 天韃靼蕎麥葉片中抗氧化活性成分,顯示播種後 60 天葉片含量較高,包括總酚 (29.79 mg/g D.W.)、類黃酮 (24.54 mg/g D.W.)、芸香苷 (17.63 mg/g D.W.)、γ-胺基丁酸(1.54 mg/g D.W.) 及麩胱甘肽 (19.96 μmol/g D.W.),而槲皮素含量隨生長期增加至第 90 天最高,含量達 2.34 mg/g D.W.,綠原酸 (1.04 mg/g D.W.)、花青素 (15.74 μg/g D.W.)、維生素 C (2.17 mg/g D.W.) 則於播種後 15 天之含量較高,且其隨生長期增加而含量下降。
不同生長期葉片之抗氧化能力,結果顯示播種後 60 天葉片 75% 乙醇萃取物,於濃度 0.2 mg/mL 時,較其它播種天數有更佳 DPPH 自由基清除能力 (71.05%)、總抗氧化能力 (78.14%) 及還原力 (A700 nm=0.997),而在相同濃度下,播種後 45 及 60 天葉片之 75% 乙醇萃取物,則具較佳清除超氧陰離子之能力 (31.52、23.29%),且將濃度提高至 1 mg/mL時,韃靼蕎麥葉萃取物皆有極佳之抗氧化能力。
綜合以上結果可知,韃靼蕎麥葉具營養價值,且機能性成分含量高、並有良好抗氧化表現,尤其於播種後 60 天為最佳採收期,本研究之結果未來可作為韃靼蕎麥葉相關產品研製之參考,以期賦予韃靼蕎麥葉更高經濟價值,國人更能藉由攝取其中所含天然抗氧化成分以達保健功效。

Tartary buckwheat leaves are emerging functional crops in recent years. Their seeds are rich in nutrition and bioactive components, with multiple effects such as antioxidative activity, antihypertension, and internal hemorrhage prevention. The edible sprouts contained rutin which can preclude capillary apoplexy and other diseases. This study, setting variables of leaves harvested at different growth stages (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 Days After Sowing, DAS), explored the plant growth characteristics, approximate composition and amino acids, as well as further analysis of antioxidant activity. The result showed that the most significant changes occurred with plant height (8.8~96.4 cm) at 15~105 DAS and leaf weight (0.02~0.79 g) at 60 DAS, and the round cotyledons matured to heart-shaped leaves. The approximate composition encompassed higher levels of the crude protein (1.16~3.09%) and crude ash (0.91~2.84%), while the moisture (82.42~91.72%) decreased as growth increased. The research also found that leaves comprised 17 forms of amino acids, including glutamic acid (15.90~29.27 mg/g D.W.), leucine (11.82~21.93 mg/g D.W.) and aspartic acid (12.55~21.46 mg/g D.W.), as well as lysine (8.28~15.69 mg/g D.W.) which is typically lacked in Poaceae. The total amino acid content in leaves peaked at 60 DAS. In addition, 60 DAS displayed highest levels of antioxidant activity, including total phenol (29.78 mg/g D.W.), flavonoids (24.54 mg/g D.W.), rutin (17.63 mg/g D.W.), γ-amino butyric acid (1.54 mg/g D.W.) and glutathione (19.96 μmol/g D.W.). Moreover, quercetin increased to 2.34 mg/g D.W. at 90 DAS. Meanwhile, chlorogenic acid (1.04 mg/g D.W.), anthocyanins (2.17 mg/g D.W.), vitamin C (0.16 mg/g D.W.) were higher at 15 DAS, but decreased overtime with increased growth.
Further analysis of the antioxidant capacity at various leaf growth stage indicated that combining 60 DAS of 75% ethanol extract with 0.2 mg/mL concentration produced the best DPPH radical scavenging capacity (71.05%), total antioxidant capacity (78.14%) and reducing power (A700 nm = 0.997). Whereas at the same concentration, extracts of 45 and 60 DAS outputted better superoxide anion (31.52, 23.29%). When the concentration increased to 1 mg/mL, all the tartary buckwheat leaf extracts had exceptional antioxidant capacity.
In conclusion, tartary buckwheat leaves contain superlative nutritional value, functional components, and antioxidant performance, with 60 DAS being the best harvesting period. This research can therefore facilitate future product development and foster higher economic value of tartary buckwheat leaves. Furthermore, their natural antioxidants can be utilized as dietary supplements for health benefits.

目錄 ……………………………………………………………………... Ⅰ
圖次 ……………………………………………………………………... Ⅲ
表次 ……………………………………………………………………... Ⅴ
中文摘要 ……………………….……………………………………….. Ⅳ
英文摘要 ………………………………………………………………... Ⅷ
前言………………………………………………………………………. 1
文獻回顧………………………………………………………………..... 7
一、蕎麥概述………………………………………………………. 7
二、類黃酮簡介……………………………………………………. 12
三、蕎麥中常見之機能性成分……………………………………. 15
四、自由基與抗氧化劑……………………………………………. 23
本篇研究之實驗架構…………………………………………………..... 36
材料與方法………………………………………………………………. 37
結果與討論………………………………………………………………. 48
一、不同生長期韃靼蕎麥葉之生長特性………………………………. 48
二、不同生長期韃靼蕎麥葉之一般組成變化………………………..... 48
三、不同生長期韃靼蕎麥葉之胺基酸組成變化………………………. 54
四、不同生長期韃靼蕎麥葉之抗氧化成分分析………………………. 56
(一) 總酚及類黃酮含量分析……………………………………………. 56
(二) 芸香苷、槲皮素及綠原酸含量分析………………………………. 58
(三) 總花青素、C-3-G、維生素 C 及 γ-胺基丁酸之含量分析…….. 60
(四) 麩胱甘肽含量分析…………………………………………………. 62
五、不同生長期韃靼蕎麥葉之抗氧化活性……………………………. 64
(一) DPPH 自由基清除能力……………………………………………. 65
(二) TEAC 總抗氧化能力………………………………………………. 65
(三) 還原力………………………………………………………………. 68
(四) 超氧陰離子清除能力……………………..……………………….. 68
總結論……………………………………………………………………. 72
參考文獻…………………………………………………………………… 73
附錄……………………………………………………………………… 95
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