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研究生:林意芸
論文名稱:探討高纖維化及去澀處理對青香蕉粉理化性質及抗解澱粉含量之影響
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of the physicochemical characteristics and resistant starch content of the green banana flour with the high resistant starch and de-astringency treatments
指導教授:廖宏儒
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
中文關鍵詞:青香蕉粉抗解澱粉澀味估計升糖指數糊化度
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青香蕉中含有許多在人體小腸中無法消化吸收的抗解澱粉(resistant starch, RS),而RS屬於膳食纖維 (dietary fiber, DF)的成分之一,具有與DF類似的生理功能。青香蕉具有高RS含量的特性,使其具有開發成低升糖指數 (glycemic index, GI) 食品的潛力。本研究目的為開發具低澀味且為高RS含量的青香蕉粉,並探討青香蕉粉的實際應用性。
本研究結果指出: 比較不同去澀方式,以10 % 石灰水浸漬4天進行去澀處理,其單寧 (tannins) 含量為4.77 CE mg/g extract最低。比較不同護色處理方式,以0.3%檸檬酸浸漬液進行護色處理,白度 (whiteness index, W.I.) 為76.11最高。再以不同乾燥方式製作青香蕉粉,以低溫低溼乾燥處理,RS含量為28.75 %最高,為較佳的青香蕉粉 (green banana flour, GBF) 乾燥方式。利用酵素處理來製造高RS含量的青香蕉粉 (pullulanase green banana flour, PGBF),其RS含量可增加為45.88 %,可有效增加RS含量,且增加量達66.52 %。
另外本研究發現,GBF之直鏈澱粉含量為25.99 %,RS含量為28.75 %,TDF含量為8.70 %。PGBF之直鏈澱粉含量為17.04 %,RS含量為43.22 %,TDF含量為21.15 %。而熟香蕉粉 (ripe banana flour, RBF) 之直鏈澱粉含量為4.14 %,RS含量為5.73 %,TDF含量為2.33 %。明顯可看出直鏈澱粉含量、RS的含量、TDF含量在香蕉成熟時會明顯的下降。此外市售抗性澱粉RS4 (RS4) 之TDF含量為83.40 %,RS含量則為0.44 %。GBF之TDF含量為8.70 %,RS含量為30.90 %。可看出本研究所採用的TDF含量測量方法 (AOAC 991.43) 及RS含量的測量方法 (AOAC 2002.02) 會受限於RS的種類而造成誤差,也會進而影響總澱粉含量,與Cho and Samuel (2009) 所提出的文獻相符合。
以GBF、PGBF、RBF,與市售抗解澱粉RS4 (RS4)、小麥澱粉 (wheat flour, WF)、糯米粉 (waxy rice flour, WRF) 及中筋麵粉 (plain flour, PF) 比較澱粉的特性。保水力(water holding capacity, WHC) 跟膨潤力 (swelling power, SP) 在溫度上升時都有增加的趨勢。PGBF與RS4之WHC及SP並無顯著性差異存在(p>0.05)。而在溶解度 (solubility, S) 方面,可明顯看出熟香蕉粉與青香蕉粉的差異,RBF在60~90℃各溫度點下,皆大於其他樣品。甚至RBF與GBF在60℃相比,將近六倍之差。WHC、SP及S的結果,皆可看出RBF、GBF與PGBF中澱粉特性的差異。而體外澱粉消化性的結果,則以GBF之估計升糖指數 (eGI)為45.21為最低。色澤分析中,PGBF之W.I.為38.90,表示其褐變程度最高。
成糊特性(geleatinization properties)中,PGBF的各參數值與RS4之間沒有顯著性差異 (p>0.05)。而香蕉粉中尖峰黏度 (peak viscosity, PV) 依序為:GBF (PV = 522.00BU) >RBF (PV = 21.33BU) >PGBF (PV = 4.67BU)。相關分析直鏈澱粉含量與成糊特性參數PT (r=0.663, p<0.01),PV (r=0.602, p<0.01),HS (r=0.685, p<0.01),BD (r=0.480, p<0.05) 及FV (r=0.648, p<0.05) 之間為顯著正相關。而TDF與成糊特性參數PT (r=-0.489, p<0.05) 及SB (r=-0.470, p<0.01) 之間為顯著負相關。eGI與成糊特性參數SB(r=0.668, p<0.01)之間為顯著正相關。
熱性質(Thermal properties) 的結果: GBF之波峰溫度 (Tp) 為74.96℃,熱焓 (∆H) 為2.85 (J/g)。 RBF之Tp為79.98℃,∆H為1.56 (J/g)。而PGBF則無法測得明顯澱粉糊化變化。相關分析RS含量與熱性質參數中To (r= -0.784, p<0.01) ,Tp (r= -0.795, p<0.01) ,Tc (r= -0.773, p<0.01),T(r= -0.489, p<0.05)及H (r= -0.450, p<0.05) 之間為顯著負相關。TDF含量與熱性質參數中T (r= -0.456, p<0.05) 之間為顯著負相關。eGI與熱性質參數中T (r=0.490, p<0.05)之間為顯著正相關。
糊化度 (degree of gelatinization, DG) 的結果: GBF之DG為2.20 %,最低是PGBF之DG為0.81 %。WS之糊化度為10.13 %最高。DG與TDF含量 (r= -0.477, p<0.05) 之間為顯著負相關。DG 與eGI ( r=0.633, p< 0.01) 之間為顯著負相關。 DG與WHC 40℃(r=0.442, p<0.05) ,WHC 60℃(r=0.870, p<0.01) 及WHC 80℃(r=0.442, p<0.05) 之間為顯著正相關。DG與成糊性質參數SP 60 ℃(r=0.891, p<0.01),SP 70℃(r=0.891, p<0.01) 及SP 80℃(r=0.915, p<0.01)之間為顯著正相關。DG與成糊性質參數PV (r=0.843, p<0.01),HS (r=0.825, p<0.01),FV (r=0.918, p<0.01) 及SB (r=0.857, p<0.01) 之間為顯著正相關。DG與熱性質參數To (r=0.763, p<0.01)及Tp (r=0.807, p<0.01) 為顯著正相關。

目次
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………................i
Abstract……………………………………………………………………….............iv
致謝辭.........................................................................................................................vii
第一章、前言………………………………………………………………….............1
第二章、文獻回顧…………………………………………………………………….2
2-1.香蕉…………………………………………………………………….............2
2-1-1.香蕉品種……………………………………………………………..............3
2-1-2.香蕉營養價值與利用………………………………………………..............3
2-1-3.香蕉成熟度之判別…………………………………………………..............4
2-1-3-1.香蕉成熟度………………………………………………………...............4
2-1-3-2.香蕉飽滿度………………………………………………………………...4
2-2.澀味…………………………………………………………………...............12
2-3.食品褐變之機制……………………………………………………...............12
2-4.澱粉………………………………………………………………...................14
2-5.抗解澱粉…………………………………………………………….………..21
2-6.澱粉消化特性……………………………………………………….………..30
2-7.升糖指數………………………………………………………….…………..30
2-8.澱粉的理化特性………………………………………………….…………..33
2-9.示差掃描熱分析……………………………………………………………...37
第三章、材料與方法………………………………………………………………...41
3-1.材料…………………………………………………………………………...41
一、實驗材料……………………………………………………………………41
二、試藥…………………………………………………………........................41
三、實驗儀器設備………………………………………………………………44
3-2.實驗架構……………………………………………………………………...47
3-3-1.青香蕉粉預試驗……………………………………………………………50
一、去澀處理……………………………………………………………………50
二、護色處理……………………………………………………………………50
三、不同乾燥方式比較…………………………………………………………50
四、青香蕉粉製備 ……………………………………………………………50
五、製備高RS青香蕉粉………………………………………………………...51
六、粉末色澤分析………………………………………………………………51
七、白度值 ……………………………………………………………..............51
八、青香蕉粉萃取液製備………………………………………………………52
九、多酚含量測定………………………………………………………………52
十、縮合單寧測定………………………………………………………………52
十一、熟香蕉粉製備……………………………………………………………52
3-3-2.一般分析………………………………………………………....................53
一、水分含量分析………………………………………………………………53
二、粗蛋白質含量………………………………………………………………53
三、灰份…………………………………………………………………………53
四、脫脂樣品製備………………………………………………………………53
五、直鏈澱粉含量……………………………………………………………....54
六、抗解澱粉與總澱粉含量分析………………………………………………54
七、總膳食纖維含量測定………………………………………………………56
3-3-3.保水力………………………..……………………………………………..57
3-3-4.膨潤力與溶解度…………..………………………………………………..57
3-3-5.體外消化性試驗………..…………………………………………………..58
3-3-6.糊化特性測定……………..……………………………………………......58
3-3-7.熱性質…………..…………………………………………………………..59
3-3-8.糊化度……………………………………………………… ……………...59
3-3-9.統計分析……………………………………………………………………60
第四章、結果與討論………………………………………………………………...61
4-1.製備青香蕉粉………………………………………………………………...61
一、不同去澀處理對青香蕉粉單寧含量、多酚含量變化的影響…………. …………... ............................................................................61
二、護色處理……………………………………………………………………63
三、不同乾燥方式對青香蕉粉抗解澱粉含量的影響………………………... 63
四、經酵素處理青香蕉粉....................................................................................64
4-2.樣品分析……………………………..……………………………………….70
一、一般成分分析………………………………………………………………70
二、保水力、膨潤力與溶解度的變化…………………………………………..76
三、估計升糖指數………………………………………………………………82
四、色澤分析……………………………………………………………………85
五、成糊特性……………………………………………………………………88
六、熱性質……………………………………………………………………..96
七、糊化度 ……………………………………………………………………101
第五章、結論……………………………………………………………………….105
附錄………………………………………………………………………………107
Nomenclature…………………………………………………………………….107
第六章、參考文獻……………………………………………………….…………109

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