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研究生:林卓志
研究生(外文):Cho-Chih Lin
論文名稱:運用正向動力學模擬鉸接式三維虛擬角色動畫之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Design of Forward Dynamics Simulator for Animating 3D Articulated Characters
指導教授:盧天麒盧天麒引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tain-chi Lu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:50
中文關鍵詞:角色動畫正向動力學動作追蹤PD控制器反應動作
外文關鍵詞:Character AnimationForward DynamicsTrackingPD ControllerResponsive Motion
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虛擬角色反應動作的製作,傳統上是藉由美術設計人員手動設計角色動作,假設美術設計人員缺乏完整物理相關知識時,所製作之角色動作將無法展現自然的物理作用。本研究中利用一般商業動畫製作軟體所匯出的標準來源檔案,從來源檔案中擷取虛擬角色的骨架與動作資訊,利用開放動態物理引擎(Open Dynamics Engine)建置骨架中包含物理屬性的虛擬角色。此時在物理引擎環境中的角色已經可以受到環境物理屬性作用,而在角色動作方面,本研究使用PD控制器(Proportional-Derivative controller)追蹤來源檔案中的角色動作。PD控制器的作用是使虛擬角色所模擬的動作接近來源檔案中的角色動作。計算方式是將目前虛擬角色的關節角度與關節速度值,與來源檔案當中角色動作的關節角度與關節速度值計算其之間的差異,接著計算虛擬角色追蹤來源檔案動作的力矩。傳統的方法中角色動作追蹤方式是對虛擬角色全身的關節皆進行動作追蹤,而此方法在角色不受外力時會耗費系統過多的計算時間;因此本研究提出三階段追蹤方法(3-level tracking method)改進傳統全身性追蹤方式,本方法中依照角色受到外力作用大小程度,判斷角色需要進行動作追蹤的關節數量與範圍。而在角色無法承受過大的外力而維持走路平衡時,系統將依照條件判斷角色應有的倒地動作,利用多重動作追蹤使角色生成特定的自然倒地動作。本研究將來源檔案中固定角色附加物理屬性並改進追蹤方式,讓虛擬角色能展現產生適應不同外力大小的反應動作。三階段追蹤方法同時減少非必要的計算量,而在判斷角色倒地時,也可依照特定外部應用及人為條件生成自然的倒地動作。
Conventionally, it is a great challenge to handcraft a series of smooth and natural responsive motions. In practice, we expect a skilled animator that needs to have enough knowledge in the field of physics while he designs responsive motions. In this thesis, we devise an adaptive forward dynamics simulator to be compatible with the 3D animation software in the skeletal format, such as poser and iClone. The motion simulation results can be stored in a FBX format to export to other animation applications for further usages. First, we analyze the bipedal character to obtain the information of bones, joints, and motions. In order to attach physical attributes, including mass, gravity, contact force, collision, and inertia, to the static character body, we make use of Open Dynamics Engine (ODE) to re-construct the bipedal character in the ODE world space. Second, we take advantage of a Proportional-Derivative controller (PD controller) to let the character automatically track a refernece walking motion in terms of calculating torque of each joint. Instead of tracking all joints in a bipedal character, we propose a three-level tracking method to not only decrease the number of tracking joints but provide the believable and smooth responsive moions when the character suffers from different strength of external perturbations. With respect to the three-level tracking methods, a bipedal character is divided into two parts, one is the upper body, and the other is the lower body. When no perturbation is applied to a character, we directly simulate the motion of the upper body by means of animating the refernece motion in the upper part, and carry out the PD controller to track the lower part of the reference motion. Once an external perturbation is occurred and the balance mechanism is under the control, the tracking depth of the upper body is claculated to react to the given perturbation. While the character confronts an unexpected perturbation and the balance control fails to cope with the situation, we do not just give up the motion tracking to like a soft rag doll but provide the specified falling style to make the character fall down plausibly. The experimental results show that the proposed forward dynamics simulator is flexible and feasible to simulate responsive motions of bipedal characters with different perturbations. In comparison with the conventional data-driven methods, the proposed system only needs a few natural reference motions for tracking and it simulates any possible responsive motions in real-time with a high frame rate.
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 x
第一章、緒論 (Introduction) 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 (Motivation) 1
1.2 研究範圍與構想 (Scope and Concept) 1
1.3 研究方法與步驟 (Method) 2
1.4 章節安排 2
第二章、相關工作 (Related Works) 3
2.1 來源動作追蹤 (Reference Motion Tracking) 4
2.1.1 虛擬控制點 (Virtual Control Point) 4
2.1.2 PD控制器 (PD-Controller) 5
2.2 物理屬性 (Physical Properties) 7
2.2.1 物理引擎 (Physics Engine) 7
2.2.2 反應動作 (Responsive Motion) 8
2.3 動力學方法(Dynamics) 11
第三章、虛擬角色模擬動作 (Character Motion Simulation) 13
3.1 角色設定 13
3.2 研究架構 14
虛擬角色生成器 15
動作生成器 16
動態環境生成器 16
動作追蹤 16
虛擬角色動作模擬 17
3.3 建立虛擬角色 17
3.4 計算角色動作 20
3.5 虛擬環境設定 21
3.6 使用PD控制器進行動作追蹤 22
3.7 使用正向動力學進行動作模擬 24
第四章、動作追蹤改進方法(Improvement of Motion Tracking Method) 28
4.1 三階段追蹤方法 (3-Level Tracking Method) 29
4.2 多重來源動作追蹤方法 (The Tracking Method of Multiple Reference Motions) 31
第五章、實驗結果 (Experimental Results) 33
5.1 角色與虛擬環境設定 34
5.2 模擬角色來源動作模擬 36
5.3 角色受力之後追蹤來源動作 38
5.3.1三階段追蹤方法 39
5.3.2 多重動作追蹤方法 43
第六章、結論與未來方向 (Conclusion and Future Works) 45
參考文獻 (Reference) 47

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