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研究生:孫馨怡
研究生(外文):Sin-Yi Sun
論文名稱:菇包廢料堆肥不同施用量及施用方式對落花生有機栽培土壤肥力、農藝性狀及種仁一般成分之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of different application rates and methods of spent mushroom compost on soil fertility, agronomic characters and chemical composition for peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.) by organic cultivation.
指導教授:侯金日侯金日引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Jin Hou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:農藝學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:147
中文關鍵詞:落花生菇包廢料有機栽培施用量土壤肥力農藝性狀產量種子一般成分
外文關鍵詞:peanutspent mushroom compostorganic cultivationapplication ratesoil fertilityagronomic charactersyieldseedchemical compositio
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本研究以台南14號落花生及黑仁花生兩品種為材料,於100年2月春作及8月秋作種植於嘉義縣義竹鄉有機農家農田,試驗堆肥基質以菇類太空包廢料為主,再分別與雞糞及牛糞混合堆置發酵成二種配方之有機堆肥,目的探討落花生有機栽培肥培管理,不同施用量處理(低:1500 kg/ha、中:3000 kg/ha、高:
4500 kg/ha)與不同施用方式(全施:3000 kg/ha作基肥一次性施用、分施:2/3基肥+1/3追施)及不施肥處理對落花生有機栽培土壤肥力、農藝性狀產量及種仁一般成分之影響,在農藝性狀產量與種仁一般成份的部份並與慣行栽培作比較,試驗結果顯示:
不同施用量處理對落花生有機栽培土壤肥力的影響,春作落花生兩品種施用兩種堆肥後土壤有效磷含量皆隨施用量增加而提高;秋作落花生兩品種施用兩種堆肥後土壤有效磷、交換性鎂和有機質含量亦隨施用量增加而提高。在農藝性狀與產量組成方面,春作落花生兩品種之成熟莢果數在兩種堆肥處理下普遍皆以中施用量處理較高,而成熟莢果乾重、種子重、百粒重、小區種子產量與一級種子百率在兩種堆肥處理下之表現,台南14號品種係以高施用量處理較高,黑仁花生品種則以中施用量處理較高;秋作落花生兩品種之株高在兩種堆肥處理下皆以低施用量處理較高,總莢果數則大致以低施用量處理和中施用量處理較高,而兩品種之成熟莢果乾重在菇包廢料雞糞堆肥處理下係以中施用量處理表現較高,在菇包廢料牛糞堆肥處理下則以高施用量處理較高,兩品種之種子數、種子重與小區種子產量在兩種堆肥處理下皆以中施用量處理較高。在種仁成分方面,春作灰分含量在兩種堆肥處理下,台南14號品種係以低施用量處理較高,黑仁花生品種則以高施用量處理較高,而兩品種粗脂肪含量在兩種堆肥處理下皆以中施用量處理較高,碳水化合物含量則皆以低施用量處理較高;秋作兩品種水分含量在兩種堆肥處理下以中施用量處理和高施用量處理較高,粗脂肪含量則皆以中施用量處理最高。
不同施用方式處理對落花生有機栽培土壤肥力的影響,春作落花生兩品種在兩種堆肥處理下之土壤交換性鉀含量皆以分施處理較高;秋作落花生在兩種堆肥處理下土壤有效磷含量於台南14號係以分施處理較高,於黑仁花生品種則以全施處理較高,而土壤交換性鈣與有機質含量在兩種堆肥處理下,兩品種皆以分施處理較高,EC值則以全施處理較高。在農藝性狀與產量組成方面,春作落花生株高、種子重與小區種子產量在兩種堆肥處理下,台南14號皆以分施處理較高,黑仁花生品種則皆以全施處理較高,而成熟莢果鮮重、種子數與小區鮮莢果產量在台南14號於菇包廢料雞糞堆肥處理下係以全施處理較高,於菇包廢料牛糞堆肥處理下則以分施處理較高,而黑仁花生表現則與台南14號相反,兩品種之剝實率在兩種堆肥處理下以全施處理較高,而一級種子百分率在菇包廢料雞糞堆肥處理下係以分施處理較高,在菇包廢料牛糞堆肥處理下則以全施處理較高,二級種子百分率表現與一級種子百分率相反,三級種子百分率兩品種在兩種堆肥處理下皆以分施處理較高;秋作落花生兩品種株高和總莢果數在兩種堆肥處理下皆以分施處理較高,分枝數以全施處理較高,兩品種之成熟莢果數在菇包廢料雞糞堆肥處理下皆以分施處理較高,菇包廢料牛糞堆肥處理下則以全施處理較高,未成熟莢果數與一級種子百分率在台南14號於菇包廢料雞糞堆肥處理下係以全施處理較高,於菇包廢料牛糞堆肥處理下則以分施處理較高,而黑仁花生表現則與台南14號相反。在種仁成分方面,春作落花生兩品種粗脂肪含量在兩種堆肥處理下皆以全施處理含量較高;於秋作兩種堆肥對兩品種種仁之成分含量則皆無顯著影響。
此外亦發現,施用菇包廢料堆肥後兩期作有機質含量及春作交換性鈣含量與種植前相較普遍獲得提升;在產量方面,有機栽培落花生施肥區產量普遍較不施肥處理為高,但與慣行栽培相較則表現較低,然而春作黑仁花生在施用量試驗中兩種堆肥中施用量處理及施用方式試驗中兩種堆肥全施處理下之表現與慣行栽培相近,且春作有機栽培台南14號之一級種子百分率在兩種堆肥處理下皆高於慣行栽培;在種仁成分方面,有機栽培春作兩品種之粗脂肪含量及秋作兩品種之碳水化合物含量在兩種堆肥處理下亦高於慣行栽培。
Field experiments of peanuts Tainan NO. 14 and Black kernel peanut were conducted in February and August for spring and fall crops in an organic field in Yijhu, Chiayi County in 2011. The spent mushroom composts used in this experiment were fermented compost from piling mushroom waste with chicken manure and cattle manure. The objective of this research was to assess the effects of three application rates (low:1500 kg/ha, middle:3000 kg/ha, high:4500 kg/ha), two application methods (all application: 3000 kg/ha applied as basal, split application: 2/3 applied as basal and 1/3 at the 30 days after seeding) of spent mushroom compost and no fertilization on soil fertility, yield and chemical composition of peanuts by organic cultivation, then compared with conventional cultivation. Results were summarized as following:
The effects of different application rates of compost on soil fertility of organic cultivation showed that the application of both spent mushroom with chick compost and spent mushroom with cattle compost on two cultivars of peanut in spring crop could increase the content of soil available P and in fall crop could increase the content of soil available P, exchangeable Mg and organic matter, all of these elements were increased with the increasing application rate. In terms of agronomic characters and chemical composition, in spring crop, mature pods per plant of both two cultivars was higher by the applicaion of middile rate, about mature pods dry weight, weight of seeds per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield per plot and rate of first grade seed, cultivar TN14 under two compost treatments were higher by the application of high rate, but cultivar Black kernel peanut were higher by the application of middle rate; in fall crop, plant height of two cultivars under two compost treatmeants was generally higher by the application of low rate, and total pods per plant was generally higher by the application of low and middle rates; about mature pod dry weight of two cultivars, under spent mushroom with chick compost was higher by the application of middle rate and under spent mushroom with cattle compost was higher by the application of high rate; about total seeds per plant, weight of seeds per plant and seed yield per plot, they were generally higher under both two compost treatments by the application of middle rate. As for chemical composition, in spring crop, ash content under two compost treatments of cultivar TN14 was higher by the application of low rate and of cultivar Black kernel peanut was higher by the application of high rate; crude fat content of two cultivars under two compost treatments were generally higher by the application of middle rate, but carbohydrate content was higher by the application of low rate; in fall crop, moisture content of two cultivars under two compost treatments were generally higher by the application of middle and high rates, and crude fat content was higher by the application of low rate.
The effects of different application methods of compost on soil fertility of organic cultivation showed that the treatments of both spent mushroom with chick compost and spent mushroom with cattle compost on two cultivars of peanut in spring crop by split application had higher content of exchangeable K than that by all application; in fall crop, the treatments of both two composts on cultivar TN 14 had higher content of available P by split application than that by all application, on cultivar Black kernel peanut was just the opposite, the content of soil available P was higher by all application; about the content of soil exchangeable Ca and organic matter, two cultivars under both two compost treatments by split application were higher than that by all application; about EC value, two cultivars under the two compost treatments were higher by all application. In terms of agronomic characters and chemical composition, in spring crop, plant height, weight of seed per plant and pod yield per plot of cultivar TN14 under two compost treatments were higher by split application, but cultivar Black kernel peanut was just the opposite, all of them were higher by all application; about mature pods per plant, total seeds per plant and pod yield per plot, cultivar TN14 under spent mushroom with chick compost treatment were higher by all application and under spent mushroom with cattle compost treatment were higher by split application, but cultivar Black kernel peanut was opposite to TN14; about shelling percentage, both two cultivars under two compost treatments were generally higher by all application; about rate of first grade seed, two cultivars under spent mushroom with chick compost treatment were higher by split application, but under spent mushroom with cattle compost treatment were higher by all application; about rate of second grade seed, it was opposite to rate of first grade seed; about rate of third grade seed, two cultivars by two compost treatments by split application were higher than that by all application; in fall crop, plant height and total pods per plant of two cultivars under two compost treatments were generally higher by split application, but number of branches was higher by all application; about mature pods per plant, both two cultivars under spent mushroom with chick compost was higher by split application, but under spent mushroom with cattle compost was higher by all application; about immature pods per plant and rate of first grade seed, cultivar TN14 under spent mushroom with chick compost treatment was higher by all application, but under spent mushroom with cattle compost was higher by split application, cultivar Black kernel peanut was just opposite to TN14. As for chemical composition, in spring crop, crude fat content of two cultivars under two compost treatments was generally higher by all application; in fall crop, application methods of two composts has not significant effects on any chemical composition.
Besides, the content of soil organic matter in two crops and exchengable Ca in spring crop were generally increased by two spent mushroom compost treatments after peanut harvested. Moreover, the yield of peanut by organic cultivation with fertilization is generally higher than that with control (no fertilization), but lower than that by common cultivation. However, the yield of cultivar Black kernel peanut under both two compost treatments by the application of middle rate in spring crop has been similar to that by conventionl cultivation, and rate of first grade seed of TN14 by organic cultivation was higher than that by conventionl cultivation from both application rate and method experienments. As for kernel chemical composition, crude fat contents in spring crop and carbohydrate contents in fall crop of two cultivars under both two compost treatments by organic cultivation were higher than that by conventional cultivation.
中文摘要..................................................I
Abstract................................................IV
誌謝辭.................................................VIII
表目錄...................................................LX
第一章、前言...............................................1
第二章、菇包廢料堆肥不同施用量及施用方式對落花生有機栽培土壤肥力之影響
壹、前人研究.............................................4
貳、材料方法.............................................8
參、結果...............................................12
肆、討論...............................................43
第三章、菇包廢料堆肥不同施用量及施用方式對落花生有機栽培農藝性狀及產量之影

壹、前人研究..............................................49
貳、材料方法............................................54
參、結果...............................................57
肆、討論...............................................94
第四章、菇包廢料堆肥不同施用量及施用方式對落花生有機栽培種仁一般成分之影響壹、前人研究.............................................102
貳、材料方法...........................................105
參、結果..............................................107
肆、討論..............................................128
第五章、結論.............................................134
參考文獻................................................136

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