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研究生:李錦玲
研究生(外文):Chin-Ling Lee
論文名稱:溫度及包裝對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Temperature and Packaging on Storage Life of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench)
指導教授:李堂察博士洪進雄博士
指導教授(外文):Tan-Cha LeeJin-Hsiung Hong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:農藝學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:154
中文關鍵詞:溫度包裝黃秋葵貯藏
外文關鍵詞:Temeraturepackagingokrastorage
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本研究目的在於探討嘉義地區所栽培的‘永福’黃秋葵採收後生理與
品質之變化,尋求適當貯藏溫度及包裝及二氧化氯處理,以期延長果實貯
藏壽命,調節市場供需。
以不同濃度(100ppm、200ppm 及300ppm)二氧化氯處理黃秋葵3 分鐘後
於5℃、8℃、10℃貯藏,分別以300ppm 及200ppm 處理者失重率較低。就
寒害及腐爛率而言,以不同濃度二氧化氯處理3 分鐘後分別於5℃及8℃溫
度下於第6 天及第15 天起果皮明顯產生凹陷之寒害症狀且以100ppm 處理
者寒害指數較高,於10℃及25℃貯藏,則以200ppm 處理者能有效降低腐
爛率。
黃秋葵置於保麗龍淺皿中上覆保鮮膜貯藏,就溫度而言,以25℃貯藏
失重率、腐爛率和呼吸率高且快,12℃之失重率顯著低於25℃。8℃和10
℃之失重率在貯藏期間均低,隨著貯藏時間增加於8℃貯藏15 天起失重率
和腐爛程度及呼吸率明顯高於10℃,而以12℃貯藏腐爛率和呼吸率最低,
可有效延長貯藏壽命達21 天。果實外觀顏色隨貯藏期間增加而轉暗,果皮
顏色由綠轉為黃色或黃色偏綠,其中以12℃貯藏明度(L 值)及色彩濃度(C
值)較高,色相角度變化不大(h 值)。
包裝材料方面以未加任何包裝處理之裸果失水最嚴重,於8℃及10℃貯
藏重量損失極快均於貯藏第3天起失去商品價值,另外一介淨、保鮮膜、PE
ii
袋等氣變包裝及保麗龍盒包裝等,均能有效降低貯藏期間之失重率,而有
打孔包裝之失重率明顯大於非打孔包裝者,但由於穿孔包裝較非穿孔包裝
的通風性佳,允許氣體和水汽的交換,因此腐爛發生率較低。黃秋葵貯藏
於10℃、12℃和15℃下7、14、21和28天後移溫至25℃其失重率均隨櫥架時
間增加而快速上升,且以12℃大於10℃和15℃。就腐爛程度而言,貯藏於
10℃、12℃和15℃下7天、14天、21天及28天後移溫至25℃下其腐爛程度分
別以12℃及15℃較低,較能維持黃秋葵之外觀。就呼吸率而言,貯藏於10
℃、12℃和15℃下7天後,移溫至25℃下櫥架2天期間以12℃之呼吸率變化
最小,而後均隨著櫥架時間延長而快速增加;貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃下
14天及21天後移溫至25℃下櫥架4天期間以12℃之呼吸率輕微大於15℃之
呼吸率,貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃下28天後移溫至25℃下12℃之呼吸率已
高。綜合上述,黃秋葵置於保麗龍淺皿中上覆保鮮膜包裝,以12℃為最佳
貯藏溫度,腐爛率和呼吸率最低,可有效延長貯藏壽命達21天。
The present study were examined the physiological change and quality of the cultivar of okra named “Yongfu”after postharvest.Treatment we found that the suitable packaging and temperature,and chlorine dioxide treatment could extend the storage life and keep the quality of products.
Okra fruits were treated using different concentrations(100ppm、200ppm and 300ppm) of chlorine dioxide for 3 minutes and than stored at 5℃,8℃,and 10℃, respectively; those treated with 200ppm and 300ppm chlorine dioxide had lower weight loss during the storage. In addition, Okra fruits were treated with different concentrations of chlorine dioxide for 3 minutes and then being stored at 5℃ for 6 days, and 8℃ for 15 days, respectively,showed the chilling injury(CI) symptom such as,skin pitting lesion; especially shown on 100ppm chlorine dioxide treatment.On the other hand, by using 200ppm chlorine dioxide treatment. On the other hand, fruits can reduce the decay rate by using 200ppm chlorine dioxide treat when stored at 10℃ and 25℃.
The rates of weight loss, decay incidence, and respiration were higher and rapidly when stored at 25℃ than at 12℃.The weight loss was lower at 8℃ and 10℃ during storage; however there were more weight loss, decay incidence, and respiration when stored at 8℃than at 10℃, since 16th day. Additionally there were a minimum decay incidence and respiration rate when okra fruits were stored at 12℃, which lasting to 21 days.
The visual appearance of okra pods discoloration when the period of storage was increased, and skin color changed from green to yellow or greenish yellow. The lightness(L value)and chroma(C value) were higher, and there was a little changes in hue angle(H value) when stored at 12℃。
The higher water loss was seen in unwrapped pods, especially when stored at 8℃ and 10℃ after day 3. The lower weight loss was observed when okra pods were stored in PE bags which include Ag+, saran wrap, PE bags, and polystyrene tray. The pods stored in perforated packaging had more weight loss than in non perforated packaging, because ventilation in perforated packaging is better than non perforated which had a lower decay incidence. There was a rapid increase in weight loss when okra were stored at 10℃、12℃ and 15℃, for 7、14、21 and 28 days, respectively and then transferred to 25℃. The weight loss was higher when stored at 12℃ than at 10℃ and 15℃.In additional, there was a lower decay incidence trend when stored at 12℃ and 15℃. Furthermore, in the same treatments, for the respiration rate, when stored at 10℃,12℃, and 15℃ for 7 days and then transferred to 25℃ for 2 days, there was the lowest respiration rate found when storage at 12℃. When stored at 10℃,12℃ and 15℃ for 14 and 21 days, respectively, and then transferred to 25℃ for 4 days, the respiration rate was higher at 12℃ and than 15℃;however, when stored at 10℃,12℃ and 15℃ for 28 days and then transferred to 25℃, the highest respiration rate was found at 12℃. In this study, we concluded that the best post-harvest treatment combination to keep okra quality was stored at 12℃, the pods in this treatment combination had lower decay and respiration rate, the treatment combination suppressed pod quality deterioration and improved shelf life to 21 days

中文摘要……………………………………………………………………. i
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………. iii
目錄…………………………………………………………………………. v
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………. vii
壹、前言(Introduction)……………….……………………………………… 1
貳、前人研究(Literature review)………………….………….……………... 3
一、果實生長發育與採收…………...………………………… 3
二、果實採後的生理和品質變化…………………………………
4
(一)、呼吸作用…………………………………………………….
4
(二)、成分變化…………………………………………………….
5
三、低溫貯藏與包裝對果實貯藏期間品質的影響…………
14
(一)、蔬果之低溫貯藏…………………………………………….
14
(二)、包裝對果實品質的影響…………………………………….
19
四、二氧化氯(Chlorine Dioxide)處理對不同果實品質之影響. 21
參、材料及方法(Material and methods)………………………………….
26
一、二氧化氯處理時間對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響…………….............
26

二、二氧化氯濃度和貯藏溫度對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響……............. 26
三、貯藏溫度對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響……………………………….
26
四、不同包裝對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響………………………............. 27
五、移溫對黃秋葵貯藏壽命、外觀變化、腐損程度、失重率及呼吸
率之影響…………………………………………………...............




28
肆、結果(Results) …………………………………………............................
34
一、二氧化氯處理時間對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響…………………….
34
二、二氧化氯濃度和貯藏溫度對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響…………...
40


三、貯藏溫度對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響……………………………….
58
四、不同包裝對黃秋葵貯藏壽命之影響……………………………….
78
五、移溫對黃秋葵失重率、腐爛程度、貯藏壽命及呼吸率之
影響………………………………………………………………...




89
伍、討論(Discussion) ………………………………………………………..
113
陸、結論(Conclusions)………………………………………………………
126
柒、參考文獻(Reference) …………………………………………………...
128

























圖目錄
圖1-1.二氧化氯處理時間對黃秋葵果實於5℃下失重率之響............36
圖1a.圖1-2.二氧化氯處理時間對黃秋葵果實貯藏於5℃下27天外觀之影響37
圖2-1.二氧化氯處理時間對黃秋葵果實於25℃下失重率之影響………...38
圖2-2.二氧化氯處理時間對黃秋葵果實貯藏於25℃下3天果實外觀之影響…39
圖3.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於5oC下失重率之影響………42
圖4.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵於8oC下失重率之影響……………. 43
圖5.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵於10oC下失重率之影響…………...44
圖6.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於25oC下果實失重率之影響...48
圖7-1.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於5℃下果實寒害程度之影響…50
圖7-2.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於5℃下21天果實外觀之影響…………………………………………………………………….. 51
圖8-1.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於8oC下寒害程度之影響… 52
圖8-2不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於8℃下24天果實外觀之影
響……………………………………………………………………… 53
圖9-1.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於10oC下寒害程度之影響...54
圖9-2.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於10℃21天下外觀之影響. 55
圖10-1.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於25oC下腐爛率之影響…. 56
圖10-2.不同濃度二氧化氯處理對黃秋葵貯藏於25℃下3天果實外觀之
影響………………………………………………………………… 57
圖11.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實失重率之影響…………………………. 59
圖12-1.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵於8℃、10℃、12℃和25℃下寒害程度
及腐爛程度之影響………………………………………………….. 62
圖12-2.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵於8℃、10℃、12℃和25℃下貯藏21天
果實外觀之影響…………………………………………………… 63
圖13.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實呼吸率之影響….……………………...65
圖14.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實硬度之影響….……………………….. 67
圖15.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實L值之影響….……………………….. 70
圖16.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實色相角度(ho)之影響…………………. 71
圖17.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實C值之影響….……………………….. 72
圖18.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實葉綠素a含量之影響………………… 75
圖19.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實葉綠素b含量之影響………………… 76
圖20.不同貯藏溫度對黃秋葵果實總葉綠素含量之影響………………... 77
圖21.不同包裝對黃秋葵貯藏於8℃27天下果實失重率之影響………… 83
圖22.不同包裝對黃秋葵貯藏於10℃30天下果實失重率之影響……… 84
圖23-1.不同包裝對黃秋葵貯藏於8oC 27天下果實寒害程度之影響…… 85
圖23-2.不同包裝對黃秋葵貯藏於8oC下18天果實外觀之影響………… 86
圖24-1.不同包裝對黃秋葵貯藏於10oC35天下寒害程度之影響………...87
圖24-2.不同包裝對黃秋葵貯藏於10oC 18天下果實外觀之影響………..88
圖25.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃7天後,移溫至25℃6天下果
實失重率之影響….………………………………………………….. 91
圖26.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃14天後,移溫至25℃7天下果
實失重率之影響….………………………………………………….. 92
圖27.黃秋葵貯藏於12℃和15℃21天後,移溫至25℃ 3天下果實失重率之變
化.................................................93
圖28.黃秋葵貯藏於12℃28天後,移溫至25℃3天下果實失重率之變化….…………………………………………………….....................94
圖29-1.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃7天後,移溫至25℃6天下
果實腐爛指數之變化……………………………….............98
圖29-2.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃7天後,移溫至25℃下1-6日果實外觀之變化。A.10℃,B.12℃,C.15℃,D.25℃......................99
圖30-1.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃14天後,移溫至25℃5天下
果實腐爛指數之變化………………………………............100


圖30-2.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃21天後,移溫至25℃下1-5
日果實外觀之變化………………………………………………...101
圖31-1.黃秋葵貯藏於12℃和15℃21天後,移溫至25℃3天下腐爛指數之變化 .................................................102
圖31-1.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃21天後,移溫至25℃3天下
果實外觀之變化…………………………………………………... 103
圖32-1.黃秋葵貯藏於12℃28天後,移溫至25℃3天下果實腐爛指數之變化…...................................................104
圖32-2.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃28天後,移溫至25℃4天下
果實外觀之化…………………………………………….........105
圖33.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃7天後,移溫至25℃6天下果實呼吸率
之變化……………………………………………………109
圖34.黃秋葵貯藏於10℃、12℃和15℃14天後,移溫至25℃3天下果實呼吸
率之變化……………………………………………………. 110
圖35.黃秋葵貯藏於12℃和15℃21天後,移溫至25℃3天下果實呼吸率變 化…………………………… 111
圖36.黃秋葵貯藏於12℃28天後,移溫至25℃3天下果實呼吸率之變
化……………………………………………………………………. 112


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