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研究生:石翔文
研究生(外文):Hsiang-Wen Shih
論文名稱:(k, n)累進式的視覺密碼機制
論文名稱(外文):k out of n Region Incrementing Scheme in Visual Cryptography
指導教授:楊慶隆楊慶隆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Nung Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:秘密分享視覺密碼視覺式祕密分享
外文關鍵詞:Image secret sharingVisual cryptographyVisual secret sharing
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在 (k, n)-視覺式秘密分享技術( Visual Cryptography Scheme; VCS ),藉由將秘密影像加密得到n張子影像,任意的k張子影像,在不用電腦幫忙的情況下直接疊合子影像解密取得,可由人眼直接解密,若少於k張子影像則無法解回秘密影像。由於VCS視覺解密的獨特性,使得它在應用層面上也相當廣泛,現今已有越來越多的VCS應用,例如:數位影像索引、數位浮水印、安全顯示器、嵌入私人信息和數位影像智慧財產權保護機制等。
最近,Wang提出了一個創新的(2, n)累進式的視覺密碼機制(region incrementing visual cryptographic scheme; RIVCS),可以逐步重建祕密在具有多個安全階層的單一影像。在RIVCS,一個秘密影像可以根據安全階層區分為多個區域,任意t張子影像疊合,2<=t<=n,可以解回第(t-1)階區域。無論如何,Wang的機制有顏色不正確的問題,被重建影像的顏色可能會相反(即黑白互換)。如果機密的資訊隱藏在顏色中,顏色不正確的問題會讓人誤解祕密。此外,Wang的機制只適用於(2, n)-RIVCS。在本篇論文,我們提出可以適用於k 和 n的一般性(k, n)-RIVCS,能夠在所有區域解回正確的顏色。我們也提出修改後的(k, n)-RIVCS可以適用於k 和 n,跟 Wang的機制比較加強了解密後影像的清晰度並減少了子影像的擴張。最後,理論證明我們所提出的(k, n)-RIVCS符合安全性和清晰度的條件。
我們的機制能夠在所有區域解回正確的顏色。若跟Wang 的機制一樣,可容忍重建影像的顏色互換,我們也設計了修改後的(k, n)-RIVCS。跟 Wang 的機制比較,這種修改後的(k, n)-RIVCS 減少了子影像的擴張,並且解密後的影像有較佳清晰度。實驗結果展現了我們的(k, n)-RIVCS 確實可得回正確顏色和有較小的子影像擴張。
In a (k, n) visual cryptography scheme (VCS), a secret image is encoded into n shadow images that distributed to n participants. Any k participants can reveal the secret image by stacking their shadow images to visually decode the secret image without the help of hardware or computation, but (k1) or fewer participants will not gain any information. The beautiful property of VCS is the ease of decoding, the stacking-to-see property, and it can be adopted in many applications such as digital image indexing, watermarking, securing display, embedding private information.
Recently, Wang introduced a novel (2, n) region incrementing visual cryptographic scheme, which can gradually reconstruct secrets in a single image with multiple security levels. In RIVCS, a secret image is subdivided into multiple regions in such way that any t shadow images, where 2tn, can be used to reveal the (t1)-th region. However, Wang’s scheme suffers from the incorrect-color problem, which the colors of reconstructed images may be reversed (i.e., the black and white are reversed). If the color of text is also the secret information, the incorrect-color problem will compromise the secret. Additionally, Wang's scheme is only suitable for the 2-out-of-n case, i.e., (k, n)-RIVCS where k=2. In this thesis, we propose the general (k, n)-RIVCS revealing the correct colors for all regions, where k and n can be any integers. We also propose the modified (k, n)-RIVCS to enhance the contrast and reduce the size of shadow image compared with Wang’s scheme, where k and n can be any integers. Finally, we theoretically prove that the proposed (k, n)-RIVCS satisfies the security and contrast conditions.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivation 3
1.3 Contribution of the Thesis 3
1.4 Organization of the Thesis 3
Chapter 2 Preliminaries 5
2.1 (k, n)-VCS 5
2.2 Wang’s (2, n)-RIVCS 9
Chapter 3 The Proposed RIVCS 13
3.1 The (k, n)-RIVCS with Correct Color for All Regions 14
3.2 The Modified (k, n)-RIVCS 19
Chapter 4 Experimental Results and Comparison 27
4.1 Experimental Results 27
4.2 Discussion and Comparison 35
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Future Work 39
References 41
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