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研究生:鄭舜仁
研究生(外文):Shun-Jen Cheng
論文名稱:兩種共域鷦鶯針對托卵性及掠食性鳥類的護巢行為
論文名稱(外文):Different nest guarding behaviors in two sympatric Prinia birds, Prinia flaviventris and P. inornata
指導教授:許育誠許育誠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yu-Cheng Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:自然資源與環境學系
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:42
中文關鍵詞:灰頭鷦鶯褐頭鷦鶯護巢行為托卵寄生掠食者
外文關鍵詞:Prinia flaviventrisPrinia inornatanest defencebrood parasitismpredator
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護巢行為是一項提升繁殖成功率的重要策略,不同鳥種面對不同威脅程度的天敵時,可能會表現出不同的護巢行為。灰頭鷦鶯(Prinia flaviventris)和褐頭鷦鶯(P. inornata)是兩種共域、且親緣關係相當接近的物種,牠們的形態和生態習性相似,也棲息在同樣的環境中,不過在某些繁殖特性上有所差異。在本研究樣區中,這兩種鷦鶯受到來自相同掠食者的捕食風險,但可能面臨不同的托卵寄生壓力。本研究欲探討牠們在不同繁殖階段對不同天敵的反應。在巢邊擺放掠食者(棕背伯勞 Lanius schach)、托卵性鳥類(中杜鵑 Cuculus Saturatus)和控制組(白腹鶇 Turdus pallidus)等鳥類標本,並記錄親鳥的行為表現。結果顯示兩種鷦鶯皆對掠食者有顯著的躲避行為,牠們不攻擊、也鮮少對棕背伯勞標本表現威嚇行為,且不因繁殖階段而有差異。然而,這兩種鷦鶯的行為不盡相同:灰頭鷦鶯會表現較多的警戒聲、接近和躲藏行為;而褐頭鷦鶯則傾向遠離掠食者,並以警戒聲吸引其注意力。灰頭鷦鶯在卵期對中杜鵑標本表現顯著的攻擊行為,在雛期則否。雖然灰頭鷦鶯對中杜鵑的其他行為(威嚇和接近)和對控制組(白腹鶇)的行為無顯著差異,但在兩個繁殖階段都有相當強烈的行為表現。相較之下,褐頭鷦鶯則無顯著的防禦托卵性鳥類行為。強烈的護巢行為和卵色的高度模擬,都顯示灰頭鷦鶯可能是中杜鵑在台灣的主要宿主。本研究結果指出兩種共域鷦鶯各自具有不同的護巢行為:當面對相同的掠食者時,牠們會使用不同的防禦策略;對於托卵性鳥類的反應也截然不同,這可能反映了兩種鷦鶯受到的寄生壓力有所差異。
Nest-guarding is an important strategy for successful reproduction. Birds may adopt different nest defense behavior according to the degree of threat from the intruders. The yellow-bellied prinia (Prinia flaviventris) and plain prinia (P. inornata) are two sympatric, phylogenetically closely related species. They are similar in size and share the same feeding ecology, but differ in some breeding traits. They suffer predation risk from the same avian predator, and may have different pressures from brood parasites. In this study, we tested their responses to the intruders during different breeding stages. We presented mounted specimens of an avian predator (long-tailed shrike, Lanius schach), brood parasite (oriental cuckoo, Cuculus optatus) and a control (pale thrush, Turdus pallidus) near the nest and recorded the nest owners’ responses. Both species showed significant avoidance to the predator regardless of breeding stages. They did not attack and performed very few mobbing behaviors toward the shrike model. However, they differed in other behaviors: the yellow-bellied prinias were more alarmed by the shrike, with more approachings and hidings, while the plain prinia tended to be away from the shrike and used alarm calls to distract the predator. For the responses to the brood parasites, the yellow-bellied prinia displayed significant attacking behavior toward the cuckoo model at the egg stage, but not in the nestling stage. The plain prinias showed no significant anti-cuckoo behavior at either breeding stage. The strong aggression toward the cuckoo and high similarity in their egg coloration indicates that the yellow-bellied prinia may be the main host for the oriental cuckoo. Our results highlighted the different nest guarding strategies of the two species: When facing the same predator, they used different nest defense behaviors; the responses to the brood parasites also differed, possibly reflecting their susceptibility to being brood-parasitized.
1. 前言 1
1.1 護巢行為 1
1.2 鳥類掠食者(avian predators)的威脅 2
1.3 托卵性鳥類(brood parasites)的威脅 3
1.4 兩種共域鷦鶯 6
1.5 兩種鷦鶯的天敵 6
1.6 研究目的 10
2. 研究材料與方法 11
2.1 研究樣區與鳥巢搜尋 11
2.2 標本實驗 11
2.3 研究樣區與鳥巢搜尋 14
3. 結果 15
3.1 灰頭鷦鶯對三種鳥類標本的反應 15
3.2 褐頭鷦鶯對三種鳥類標本的反應 21
3.3 兩種鷦鶯行為反應的比較 22
4. 討論 29
4.1 兩種鷦鶯對托卵性鳥類的護巢行為比較 29
4.2 兩種鷦鶯對掠食者的護巢行為比較 31
5. 引用文獻 35
林文宏。2010。杜鵑科。出自:劉小如,丁宗蘇,方偉宏,林文宏,蔡牧起,顏重威,台灣鳥類誌(中),442-469頁。行政院農業委員會林務局。台北。
蔡牧起。2010a。扇尾鶯科。出自:劉小如,丁宗蘇,方偉宏,林文宏,蔡牧起,顏重威,台灣鳥類誌(下),161-169頁。行政院農業委員會林務局。台北。
蔡牧起。2010b。鶇科。出自:劉小如,丁宗蘇,方偉宏,林文宏,蔡牧起,顏重威,台灣鳥類誌(下),418-420頁。行政院農業委員會林務局。台北。
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