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研究生:陳易成
研究生(外文):Chen, Yi-Cheng
論文名稱:新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎的效果
論文名稱(外文):The Efficacy of the New Formulation of Thymol Against Varroa destructor
指導教授:陳裕文陳裕文引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Yue-Wen
口試委員:何鎧光安奎陳裕文楊恩誠
口試委員(外文):Ho, Kai-KuanAn, KueiChen, Yue-WenYang, En-Cheng
口試日期:2012-07-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:動物科技學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:百里酚蜂蟹蟎防治蜜蜂
外文關鍵詞:thymolVarroa destructorcontrolhoneybee
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蜂蟹蟎(Varroa destructor)為全球養蜂業最嚴重的敵害,本研究利用百里酚(thymol)開發一種薰蒸型製劑,初步分為低劑量(含7.5 g百里酚)與高劑量(11.25 g百里酚)兩種劑型,室內試驗顯示兩者皆能有9日以上殘效期。本文利用這兩種百里酚製劑於不同季節進行多項田間防治試驗,並且評估百里酚製劑對蜂群的影響及其在蜂蜜中殘留的情形。田間防治試驗的結果顯示,每群蜜蜂施用1片高劑量百里酚製劑,9日後再追加施用1片,使用方式簡便,而且於夏季、秋季與冬季田間試驗的蜂蟹蟎防治率皆可達90%,防治效果顯著優於草酸製劑與福化利(fluvalinate)。此外,施用本資材對工蜂幼蟲的封蓋率與蜂群的封蓋面積皆無不良的影響,而且蜂蜜中百里酚殘留量極微,顯示本項百里酚製劑具有極高的推廣應用價值。

Varroa destructor is an external parasite with the most pronounced economic impact on the beekeeping industry. The disease caused by the mites is called varroatosis. Thymol has been used to successfully control varroa mites. In this study, we use thymol as a Fumigation-type agents in two different dosages . One is 7.5 g thymol / piece and the other is 11.25 g thymol /piece.The laboratory trials shows that after treatment 9 days both dosage still have effects.In the field trails, we want to know the efficacy of thymol against varroa mites in different seasons and the residual amount in honey.Honeybee colonies receives 2 successive applications (at intervals of 9 days) with 11.25 g thymol /piece. The result shows that the control rate is 90% no matter in summer , autumn or winter. The effect of thymol is significant greater than Oxalic acid and fluvalinate.Otherwise, in the experimental honeybee colonies, neither of the treatments reduced the area of capped cells nor the ratio of larval development into the capped stage. These results suggest that repeated thymol is effective for the control of varroa mites in brood-right honeybee colonies. These results indicate that the thymol formula has high application value.

壹、前言………………………………………………..…………………….…………………1
貳、往昔研究………………………………………………………………….………..………4
一、蜜蜂生物學……………………………………..………..…………….……………..4
二、蜂蟹蟎生物學…………………………………………………………….…..……....4
三、蜂蟹蟎對蜂群的危害……………………………..………………….……..…..9
(一)直接性影響……………………………………………...…………….…..……9
(二)間接性影響……………………..…………………………………….…....….10
四、物理性防治………………………………...……...………………………….…......11
五、植物精油防治……………………...………..……………………………….…......11
六、化學藥劑防治……………………………….…………...………………….……. 12
七、有機酸防治……………………….………………………………………….…….13
參、材料與方法……………………….……………………………..………………….…….15
一、試驗蜂群來源……………..……………………….………………………….….…15
二、試驗藥劑……………...……………………..……...………………………….……15
三、儀器設備……………………..…………………………………………………...…15
四、防治資材備製……………………..…………………………………………...…....16
五、新劑型百里酚室內防治試驗…………………………………………………….…16
六、新劑型百里酚田間防治試驗……………………………………...…….………….17
(一) 桃園平鎮及新竹湖口養蜂場使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎試驗(冬季). ……………………..……...………………..…...……………….……17
(二) 台灣大學安坑試驗蜂場使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎試驗(冬季)….. ....18
(三) 宜蘭大學試驗蜂場使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎試驗(夏季)…………..18
(四) 宜蘭大學試驗蜂場使用3%草酸、椰子油吊片及新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎試驗(秋季)…………………………………………………….……………..18
(五) 彰化商業養蜂場使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎效果比較(夏季)....……..19
(六) 南投商業養蜂場使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎效果比較(夏季).………..19
七、新劑型百里酚對於蜂群的影響………………………………………………….. .20
(一) 新劑型百里酚施用前後幼蟲進入封蓋期的比率……........….……...…….20
(二) 新劑型百里酚施用前後試驗蜂群的封蓋房面積. ……........….……...……20
八、試驗蜂群施用新劑型百里酚前後蜂蜜百里酚含量檢測……….………………..20
(一) 蜂蜜樣本來源…..….……..….…......….……...….……........….……...…….20
(二) 蜂蜜樣本製備…..….……..….…......….……...….……........….……...……21
(三) 氣相層析儀 – 火焰離子偵測器(GC-FID) 檢測法……........……...…….21

肆、結果……………………………………………………………………...………………..22
一、室內試驗試驗………………………………...……………………………………..22
(一) 新劑型百里酚高低劑型揮發量比較……………………………….….……22
(二) 室內試驗評估高低劑量新劑型百里酚製劑殺蟎效果及其殘效性………..22
二、新劑型百里酚田間防治試驗………………………..……….. ……………………22
(一) 台灣各地區田間防治蜂蟹蟎試驗……………………………………..……22
1.桃園平鎮及新竹湖口養蜂場於冬季使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎的效果....22
2.台灣大學安坑試驗蜂場於冬季使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎的效果…..…..23
3.宜蘭大學試驗蜂場於夏季使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎的效果…………....23
4.宜蘭大學試驗蜂場於秋季分別使用新劑型百里酚、3 %草酸和椰子油防治蜂蟹蟎的效果比較………………………….……….….………..……….….……..23
5.彰化商業養蜂場於夏季分別使用新劑型百里酚與福化利防治蜂蟹蟎的效果比 較………………………………………….….………….….……………………24
6.南投商業養蜂場於夏季分別使用新劑型百里酚與福化利防治蜂蟹蟎的效果比較…... ………………………………………….….………………...….…………..25
三、新劑型百里酚對於蜂群的影響…………………………………………………….25
(一) 新劑型百里酚施用前後幼蟲進入封蓋期的比率……………………...……25
(二) 新劑型百里酚施用前後試驗蜂群的封蓋房面積……………...…….……..26
四、試驗蜂群施用新劑型百里酚前後蜂蜜中百里酚含量…………………………..26

伍、討論…………...………………………………………………………………..…………27
一、研發有效防治蜂蟹蟎的百里酚製劑…………………...…..…...............................27
二、施用新劑型百里酚的最佳時機………………………............................................28
三、新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎的效果…………………..…...........................................28
四、新劑型百里酚與福化利防治蜂蟹蟎的效果…………………….............................29
五、施用新劑型百里酚對於蜂群發展的影響…………………..……………….........30
六、施用新劑型百里酚前後蜂蜜中百里酚的殘留量變化………..………………......30
陸、結論……………………………………………………...……………………..…………31
柒、參考文獻…………………………………………………………….………..…..............32

表次
表一、室內試驗評估高低劑量新劑型百里酚製劑殺蟎效果及其殘效性..... ..... .................39
表二、桃園平鎮及新竹湖口養蜂場於冬季使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎的效果.............40
表三、台灣大學安坑試驗蜂場於冬季使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎的效果.................... 41
表四、宜蘭大學試驗蜂場於夏季使用新劑型百里酚防治蜂蟹蟎的效果試驗.....................42
表五、宜蘭大學試驗蜂場於秋季分別使用新劑型百里酚、3 %草酸和椰子油防治蜂蟹蟎的效果比較.. ..................... ........... ........................... ............ ....................... .............43
表六、彰化商業養蜂場於夏季分別使用新劑型百里酚與福化利防治蜂蟹蟎的效果比較.44
表七、南投商業養蜂場於夏季分別使用新劑型百里酚與福化利防治蜂蟹的效果比較..45
表八、試驗蜂群施用新劑型百里酚前後的封蓋蜂房面積( cm2) ....................................... 46
表九、試驗蜂群施用新劑型百里酚前後蜂蜜中百里酚的殘留量 (ppm) ........................... 47

圖次
圖一、宜蘭大學試驗蜂場使用新劑型百里酚、3 %草酸、椰子油防治蜂蟹蟎試驗落蟎趨勢圖......……….……………………..………………………………………………48
圖二、試驗蜂群於施用高劑量新劑型百里酚前後1日齡工蜂幼蟲進入封蓋期比率(%)………………………………..……………………………………………..……49
圖三、百里酚的GC-FID檢量線………………..…………....………………………………50
圖四、百里酚的GC-FID分析圖譜……………………………..……………………………51
圖五、高低劑量新劑型百里酚每日揮發量………………………….………………………52
圖六、施用新劑型百里酚(箭頭處)………………………………….………………………53
圖七、新劑型百里酚防治後蜂箱底板落蟎狀況……………………….……………………54

附錄
附錄一、百里酚物質安全質量表……………..…………....………………………………55

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