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研究生:劉耕宏
研究生(外文):Keng-Hung Liu
論文名稱:真空包裝與冷凍儲藏對國產酪梨有機酸、葉黃素、α-生育醇及D-甘露庚酮糖含量變化之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of vacuum package and frozen storage on organic acid, lutein, α-tocopherol and D-mannoheptulose contents of domestic avocado
指導教授:石正中石正中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jeng-Jung Shyr
口試委員:許明仁陳右人
口試日期:2012-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:園藝學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:真空包裝冷凍儲藏酪梨有機酸葉黃素α-生育醇D-甘露庚酮糖
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本研究針對台灣國產酪梨(Persea americana Mill.)品種,暸解冷凍溫度以及真空包裝凍藏對後熟果肉中有機酸(organic acid)、葉黃素(lutein)、α-生育醇(α-tocopherol)及D-甘露庚酮糖(D-mannoheptulose)含量的影響,以建立酪梨最佳儲藏條件,來提昇國內酪梨產業之經濟效益。
本研究使用‘章安’、‘清進一號’、‘秋可’(‘Choquette’)、‘厚兒’(‘Hall’)、‘嘉選三號’以及‘麻豆普’六個品種。酪梨品種間果肉有機酸的總有機酸、蘋果酸、延胡索酸含量,皆以‘厚兒’的含量最高,分別為每克含1475μg、573μg、27.0μg;半乳糖醛酸以‘清進一號’含量最高為每克含268μg;酒石酸、檸檬酸含量,皆以‘嘉選三號’含量最高,分別為每克含230μg和683μg。葉黃素以‘嘉選三號’最高為每克含5.34μg。α-生育醇以‘麻豆普’的含量最高為每克含81.0μg。D-甘露庚酮糖於未後熟果實中含量以‘秋可’最高為每克含41.5mg,後熟後含量以‘麻豆普’最高為每克含27.1mg。
果肉內有機酸隨著-15℃凍藏時間增加,半乳糖醛酸、酒石酸以及延胡索酸有先增後減的趨勢,蘋果酸和檸檬酸含量變化在各品種間較不一致,另外在-30℃儲藏者變化幅度不大。果肉內葉黃素、α-生育醇和D-甘露庚酮糖凍藏在-15℃下,隨著儲藏時間的增加,含量有下降的趨勢,而在-30℃可以減緩下降。
酪梨果肉真空包裝在-30℃冷凍儲藏下,‘嘉選三號’果肉較可以維持有機酸、葉黃素、α-生育醇、D-甘露庚酮糖四者的含量。
在這六個酪梨品種中以‘麻豆普’品種具有較高的葉黃素、α-生育醇和D-甘露庚酮糖含量。酪梨果肉儲藏以冷凍溫度-30℃並以真空包裝為較佳,可以維持有機酸、葉黃素、α-生育醇、D-甘露庚酮糖之含量以及保持酪梨原有的品質。


The organic acids, lutein, α-tocopherol and D-mannoheptulose content of the mesocarp of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) fruits from Jhu-ci area, Chia-yi County, were analyzed. The differences of varieties, frozen temperature, and vacuum package were investigated in order to set up the best storage conditions and increase economic benefit of domestic avocados.

Experiments were carried out with seven avocado cultivars including, ‘Ching Jin No.1’, ‘Zhang an’, ‘Choquette’, ‘Hall’, ‘CASE3’ and ‘Madoupu’ varieties. The difference of organic acid, lutein, α-tocopherol, D-mannoheptulose content in six ripening mesocarp of avocado varieties. The highest content of organic acid (1475 μg/g FW), malic acid (573 μg/g FW) and fumaric acid (27.0 μg FW) is ‘Hall’. The highest content of galaturonic acid (268 μg/g FW) is ‘Ching Jin No.1’. The highest content of tartaric acid (230.03μg/g FW) and citric acid (683 μg/g FW) is ‘CASE3’. The highest content of lutein (5.34 μg/g FW) is ‘CASE3’. The highest content of α-tocopherol (81.0 μg/g FW) is ‘Madoupu’. The highest content of D-mannoheptulose (41.5 mg/g FW) in six unripe avocado is ‘Choquette’ and the highest content of D-mannoheptulose (27.1 mg/g FW) in six ripe avocado is ‘Madoupu’.

Changes of organic acids, lutein, α-tocopherol, D-mannoheptulose contents in domestic avocados freeze in different temperature. Overall, the content of galaturonic acid, tartaric acid and fumaric acid were increased then decreased in six months, but malic acid and citric change irregularly in six months. The content of lutein, α-tocopherol, and D-mannoheptulose decreased in six months. But organic acid, lutein, α-tocopherol and D-mannoheptulose change less at -30℃.

Changes of organic acids, lutein, α-tocopherol, D-mannoheptulose contents in domestic avocados store by vacuum package at -30℃. Changes of organic acid, lutein, α-tocopherol and D-mannoheptulose in ‘CASE3’ is less in vacuum-packed at -30℃. Vacuum package can maintain the content of these.

‘Madoupu’ has the highest functional content in six avocado varieties. Vacuum package and -30℃ is the best storage condition of the mesocarp of ripe avocado and can maintain the content of organic acid, lutein, α-tocopherol and D-mannoheptulose in mesocarp of avocado.

壹、 前言………………………………………………………………1
貳、 前人研究…………………………………………………………3
一、 酪梨概說……………………………………………………………3
二、 酪梨後熟果肉的儲藏………………………………………………5
三、 油脂氧化……………………………………………………………9
四、 酪梨的有機酸 ……………………………………………………14
五、 酪梨的葉黃素 ……………………………………………………22
六、 酪梨的α-生育醇…………………………………………………25
七、 酪梨的D-甘露庚酮糖 ……………..……………………………27
參、 材料與方法…………………………………………..………...30
一、 實驗材料…………………………………………………………30
二、 實驗方法…………………………………………………………31
三、 統計分析…………………………………………………………36
肆、 結果與討論……………………………………………………37
一、 酪梨品種間果肉有機酸、葉黃素、α-生育醇、D-甘露庚酮糖含量之差異………………………………………………………………..37
二、 冷凍儲藏對酪梨果肉有機酸、葉黃素、α-生育醇、D-甘露庚酮糖含量之影響…………………………………………………………..45
三、 真空包裝並冷凍儲藏對酪梨果肉有機酸、葉黃素、α-生育醇、D-甘露庚酮糖含量之影響……………………………………………..62
伍、 結論 ……………………………………………………………70
陸、 參考文獻 ………………………………………………………71




表次
表1. 後熟酪梨果肉有機酸含量……………………………………....38
表2. 未後熟和後熟酪梨D-甘露庚酮糖含量………………………43
表3. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏半乳糖醛酸含量……....…….47
表4. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏酒石酸含量…………….……48
表5. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏蘋果酸含量…………….……49
表6. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏檸檬酸含量…………….……51
表7. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏延胡索酸含量………….……52
表8. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏總有機酸含量………...……..54
表9. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏葉黃素含量…….…….……..57
表10. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏α-生育醇含量….……….….59
表11. 後熟酪梨在不同溫度下冷凍貯藏D-甘露庚酮糖含量….…….61




圖次
圖1. 後熟酪梨葉黃素含量……………………………………………40
圖2. 後熟酪梨α-生育醇含量…………………………………………42
圖3. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏半乳糖醛酸含量 ...63
圖4. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏酒石酸含量 ……...63
圖5. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏蘋果酸含量 ……...65
圖6. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏檸檬酸含量 …...…65
圖7. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏延胡索酸含量…….66
圖8. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏總有機酸含量..…...66
圖9. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏總有機酸含量….....67
圖10. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏α-生育醇含量…...67
圖11. 真空包裝‘嘉選三號’酪梨在-30℃冷凍貯藏D-甘露庚酮糖含量………………………………………………………………………..68



附錄
附錄.1. 葉黃素之基本結構………….…………………….....………..83
附錄.2. α-生育醇之基本結構.………………………………...………..84
附錄.3. α-tocopherol與過氧化自由基之反應 ………………...……...84
附錄.4. 酪梨七碳糖之基本結構 .……………………………….........85
附錄.5. 酪梨加熱後的苦味物質………................................................85



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