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研究生:洪羽姿
研究生(外文):Hung,Yu-Tzu
論文名稱:休閒農業體驗活動對遊客支出與遊憩效益之影響—以宜蘭縣為例
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Leisure Agricultural Experience on Visitors’Expenditure and Recreation Benefits—A Case Study of I-Lan County
指導教授:陳凱俐陳凱俐引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Kai-Lih
口試委員:林豐政陳郁蕙
口試日期:2012-06-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:應用經濟學系碩士班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:休閒農業休閒農業體驗活動遊憩效益
外文關鍵詞:Leisure AgricultureAgricultural ExperienceRecreation Benefits
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宜蘭縣位於台灣東北部,縣內具有有豐富的自然景觀與資源,縣內經農業主管機關核定劃設的休閒農業區數量與南投縣並列全國第一。由2010年及2011年宜蘭縣休閒農業業者資料顯示,有50%以上的經營者提供體驗活動。不少學者提出體驗活動在休閒農業中的重要性,但相關文獻上關於休閒農業中體驗活動的功能及重要性尚僅止於論述,並無實證研究的數據支持。
本研究目的在於透過宜蘭縣實證資料分析體驗活動為休閒農業帶來的效益,包括實質收益和無形效益。由體驗活動對其他支出的迴歸分析發現,參與體驗活動的遊客在其他支出方面顯著高於未參與體驗活動之遊客。在遊憩效益評估結果方面,由於推估遊憩效益需先估計旅遊需求函數,本研究以計數模型中具有修正現場樣本的截斷與內生分層問題的On-site Poisson來推估旅遊需求,再配合「Parsons與Wilson(1997)專程與順道混合」之分群法,來評估遊憩效益。
在旅遊需求的實證結果顯示,不論是否區分專程順道或是否參與體驗活動,旅遊成本皆對旅遊次數有顯著負向影響,此結果符合需求法則。以旅遊需求推估遊憩效益的結果顯示,不同旅遊型態在信賴度95%下所估計之遊憩效益信賴區間分別為:未處理專程順道的全體樣本(2,467,2,557)元∕人,區分專程順道下之專(2,645,2,803)元∕人,順道(1,483,1,580)元∕人,在參與體驗的樣本中,未處理專程順道(以下簡稱未處理2) (3,216,3,366)元∕人,區分專程順道下之專程 (3,822,4,064)元∕人,順道(1,677,1,853)元∕人,由此以上結果可以得知專程的遊憩效益皆顯著高於順道的遊憩效益,且未區分專程順道的遊憩效益顯著異於未區分專程順道。在遊客參與體驗活動是否會影響遊憩效益的實證結果發現,未區分專程順道的參與體驗的樣本在信賴度95%下所估計之遊憩效益信賴區間為(3,216,3,366)元∕人,未參與體驗的樣本在沒有區分專程順道時在信賴度95%下所估計之遊憩效益信賴區間為(1,018,1,127)元∕人,結果顯示參與體驗樣本的遊憩效益會顯著高於未參與體驗樣本的遊憩效益。
由本研究結果對宜蘭縣休閒農業業者提出之建議為:若欲提高遊客的支出,可以增設體驗活動,進而帶動遊客對於體驗活動外的營業項目的消費,也能帶動遊客的支出。或藉由體驗活動拉長遊客在場內的停留時間進而帶動更多的消費。此外,也建議經營者設計高年齡層適合的體驗活動或針對高年齡高所得遊客的套裝行程,借由這些活動吸引遊客前來體驗而後帶動遊客在場內更多的花費。
對公部門的建議為,輔導相關農業場所時應加以宣導體驗活動的重要性。不應純以貨幣收益為考量,因為休閒活動的價值也是一種國民福利,因此亦應評估遊憩效益,才能完整的估計活動或產業的總效益。此外,在遊憩效益的評估方面,以旅遊成本法進行評估時,專程及順道旅遊的遊憩效益有顯著性差異,且參與體驗及未參與體驗的遊憩效益亦有顯著性差異,因此建議評估遊憩效益時,除了不應忽略單一目的地及多目的地旅遊的區別,也該將遊客是否參與體驗活動納入考量。

Yilan County lies in the northeast of Taiwan with abundant natural landscapes and resources. Presently, Yilan along with Nantou are ranked the first in the number of leisure agricultural areas in Taiwan. In 2010 and 2011, the leisure agriculture industry data of Yilan County shows that more than 50% of the operators provide experiencing activities. Many scholars put forward the importance of experiencing activities in the leisure agriculture, however, in the relevant literatures, the function and importance of experiencing activities in the leisure agriculture is so far merely stated without empirical research data to support.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the benefits rendered from experiencing activities for leisure agriculture industry in Yilan County which includes revenue and intangible benefits. The result of ordinary least square regressions shows that tourists who participated in agricultural experience consume more and have higher recreational benefit than those who did not participate in agricultural experience. Based on amendment of multiple destination trips, we adopted On-site Poisson model to estimate travel demand with the tourist samples grouped into three categories: all the tourists, tourists with agricultural experience, and tourists without agricultural experience.
The empirical results of the travel demand, whatever to distinguish a single or multiple trips or tourists with agricultural or no agricultural experience, the travel costs significantly negatively affect the number of trips, which follow the law of demand. The recreation benefit estimated from travel demand shows the result that different types of travel patterns under 95% confidence level estimated confidence interval of recreational benefit were: the all sample of not taking multiple destination trips is (NT$2,467, NT$2,557) per visitor. The confidence interval estimated for single destination trips, multiple destination trips and no agricultural experience sample while not taking multiple destination trips are (NT$2,645, NT$2,803), (NT$1,483, NT$1,580), and (NT$3,216, NT$3,366) per visitor, respectively. The confidence interval of single destination trips is (NT$3,822, NT$4,064), and multiple destination is (NT$1,677, NT$1,853). The estimated recreational benefits obtained from models created with single destination trips are significantly higher than multiple destination trips and multiple and single destination trips are significantly different with all the samples of no concerns on the trip types. The recreational benefit confidence intervals estimated to reveal the effects of agricultural experience on recreational benefits, under 95% confidence level, for not taking multiple destination trips are (NT$3,216, NT$3,366) and (NT$1,018, NT$1,127) per visitor for the tourists with agricultural experience and those without respectively. The estimated recreational benefits of the tourists with single agricultural experience are significantly higher than that of the tourists without agricultural experience.
According to the results of this study, we suggest that those who wish to increase visitors expenditure may design more agricultural experience activities to prolong visitors’ stay and to stimulate spending. Furthermore, we suggest the leisure agriculture operators to design agricultural experience activities for the elders and the high-income visitors.
For the departments of government or public, the suggestion of this study is to publicize the importance of agricultural experience, and the monetary benefit should not be the only concerning factor for the value of leisure activities is a matter of national welfare. Therefore, a complete estimation of activity and industrial benefit should include both the monetary and recreational benefits to uncover the total benefits of leisure activities. In addition, in the estimated recreational benefits aspect, using the travel cost weighting methods shows that multiple and single destination trips are of significant difference. And the recreational benefits of tourists with agricultural experience and tourists with no agricultural experience are of significant difference too. For this reason, while estimating recreational benefits, multiple and single destination trips and tourists with agricultural or no agricultural experience should not be neglected.

目錄
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究流程與方法 2
第貳章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 宜蘭縣休閒農業之經濟效益 4
第二節 休閒農業與體驗活動 9
第三節 影響遊客支出的因素 14
第四節 遊憩效益與旅遊成本法 16
第五節 專程與順道旅遊對遊憩效益之影響 25
第六節 小結 27
第參章 理論模型 29
第一節 多元迴歸模型 29
第二節 旅行成本法 29
第三節 現場卜瓦松模型 32
第四節 處理專程順道的Parsons 與 Wilson分群法 37
第五節 實證模型建構 39
第肆章 實證研究 46
第一節 資料來源 46
第二節 敘述統計 49
第三節 變數說明 55
第四節 實證結果與分析 57
第伍章 結論與建議 68
第一節 結論 68
第二節 建議 70
第三節 研究限制與後續研究 70
參考文獻 72
中文部分 72
英文部分 76
附錄 2011年宜蘭縣休閒農業遊客問卷 82


表目錄
表2-1 2004-2010年宜蘭縣休閒農業業者調查家數 5
表2-2 2010各休閒農業區經營項目之次數分配與百分比表 6
表2-3 各休閒農業區經營項目佔營業額之百分比表 7
表2-4 休閒農業體驗活動整理 12
表2-6 影響遊憩活動支付價格之因素整理 16
表2-5 國內外使用TCM相關文獻整理 20
表3-1 專程旅遊與順道旅遊需求線之比較 38
表3-2 各變數對支出影響之方向 41
表3-3 需求函數估計參數之符號 44
表4-1 各休閒農業區與至少應抽取之樣本配額及回收樣本數 48
表4-2 受訪者對休閒農業場所之旅遊次數 50
表4-3 受訪者在所在休閒農業場所之旅遊行為 51
表4-4 受訪者對所在休閒農業場所之各項滿意度 52
表4-5 所在休閒農業場所之旅遊類型與重遊意願 52
表4-6 有無參加體驗及專程順道旅遊次數及場內支出次數分配表 53
表4-7 自由行樣本之基本資料結構 54
表4-8 影響其他支出的實證結果 59
表4-9 On-site Poisson 之實證結果—全體樣本 62
表4-10 On-site Poisson 之實證結果—參與體驗樣本 63
表4-11 On-site Poisson 之實證結果—未參與體驗樣本 64
表4-12 遊憩效益估計結果 67


圖目錄
圖1-1 研究流程與架構 3
圖2-1 2004-2010年宜蘭縣休閒農業場所總經濟效益 9
圖2-2 經濟價值演進的四個階段 11
圖2-3 Lue, Crompton, and Fesenmaier 之旅遊空間模式 27
圖3-1 專程旅遊與順道旅遊需求線之比較 39

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47.蕭代基、錢玉蘭、蔡麗雪(1998),「淡水河系水質與景觀改善效益之評估」,《經濟研究》,39(1):21-59。
48.謝淑芬(2003),「性別、家庭生命週期、家庭休閒參與頻率與休閒阻礙之相關研究」。旅遊管理研究 3(1): 1-21。
49.羅紹麟(1988),「觀光遊憩之經濟影響評估」,戶外遊憩研究 3:5-14。
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1. 49. 羅紹麟(1988),「觀光遊憩之經濟影響評估」,戶外遊憩研究 3:5-14。
2. 48. 謝淑芬(2003),「性別、家庭生命週期、家庭休閒參與頻率與休閒阻礙之相關研究」。旅遊管理研究 3(1): 1-21。
3. 47. 蕭代基、錢玉蘭、蔡麗雪(1998),「淡水河系水質與景觀改善效益之評估」,《經濟研究》,39(1):21-59。
4. 45. 鄭蕙燕、張偉祐、林政德(2000),「四草野生動物保護區遊客之遊憩效益與時間成本:截斷式波爾生模型之應用」。農業經濟半年刊 67:161-179。
5. 43. 黃錦煌、蕭柏勳、葉純菊(2006),「台灣咖啡節遊憩效益評估之研究」,戶外遊憩研究19(3): 1-21。
6. 39. 陸雲(1990),「對環境資源估價之研究-非市場財估價方法」。經濟論文18:93-129。
7. 37. 陳凱俐、溫育芳(1995),「遊憩區經濟效益評估法之應用-以國立宜蘭農工專科學校實驗林場為例」。農業經濟叢刊 1:87-116。
8. 35. 陳凱俐、林雲雀、謝明修、陳琬琪、李家豪(2007),水田經濟效益評估,國立宜蘭大學生物資源學刊,3(1):1-14。
9. 36. 陳凱俐、張高誠(2003),「休閒農業及產業文化活動之經濟效益評估—以宜蘭縣為例」,宜蘭大學學報,1: 91-103。
10. 34. 陳凱俐、林雲雀(2005),「不同旅遊需求函數設定下之遊憩效益比較-以宜蘭縣為例」,農業與經濟 34:91-120。
11. 33. 陳凱俐、林雲雀(2004),「宜蘭縣遊憩區之遊憩效益評估」。中華林學季刊 3:293-302。
12. 20. 陳永坤、謝翠芳(2007),「溫泉區遊客市場區隔與遊憩效益之分析」。中州學報 26:51-63。
13. 14. 汪大雄、王培蓉、林振榮(1999),「扇平自然教育區遊憩效益之經濟評估」。台灣林業科學 4:457-468。
14. 13. 沈進成、何太山,(2007),烏山頭水庫風景區遊客期望、實際體驗、停留時間及消費支出影響關係之研究,真理觀光學報,5,1-16。
15. 10. 李俊鴻、陳吉仲(2007),「節慶活動遊客旅遊需求及遊憩效益評估-以綠色博覽會為例」。農業與經濟 39:137-166。