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研究生:潘淑萍
研究生(外文):Shu-ping Pan
論文名稱:實施HACCP對於水產品與加工環境的安全衛生品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of Practicing Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) on the Safety and Sanitarian Quality of Aquatic Products and Processing Environment
指導教授:林家民博士
口試委員:林家民博士蔡永祥博士龔賢鳳博士葉信利博士
口試日期:2012-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄海洋科技大學
系所名稱:水產食品科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:103
中文關鍵詞:HACCP
外文關鍵詞:HACCP
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水產品為高蛋白質營養的供應來源,消費者對水產食品品質之要求以產品符合衛生與安全標準為第一要件,世界各國尤其是已開發國家對水產品品質、衛生與安全之檢驗日趨嚴格,皆已對水產品施行食品安全管制系統(Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, HACCP)。此管制系統主要針對食品在產品製造、配送各階段做潛在危害的評估、確認與管控方法之系統性管理。本研究係針對執行 HACCP與未執行HACCP管理的水產加工廠生產之魚片進行品質測試,並且收集藥物殘留及重金屬殘留結果。採集時間為2011年11月至2012年5月,對象為執行 HACCP與未執行HACCP之水產品加工廠各兩所,主要產品魚種包括吳郭魚、鱸魚、鯖魚、黃鰭鮪與南方鮪,樣品總數為19種產品和118個環境樣品,測試項目包含一般衛生品質(包含總生菌數、大腸桿菌群、大腸桿菌、沙門氏菌與金黃色葡萄球菌)及腸炎弧菌與組織胺生成菌。
執行HACCP的水產品加工廠,其原料魚樣品的藥物及重金屬殘留結果,均低於美國食品藥物管理局(US FDA)標準限量規定,而未執行HACCP的水產品加工廠並無檢測報告可供查詢。在微生物衛生品質方面,執行HACCP水產品加工廠的平均水平菌數顯著低於未執行HACCP的水產品加工廠﹙P<0.05﹚。
執行HACCP水產品加工廠的產品與環境樣品之總生菌,大腸桿菌群數與組織胺生成菌顯著的比未執行HACCP水產品加工廠低﹙P<0.05﹚,金黃色葡萄球菌量在有無執行HACCP水產品加工廠均低,而沙門氏菌均未被檢出,而腸炎弧菌在有無執行HACCP水產品加工廠並無顯著性差別。
本研究結果顯示,水產加工業實施HACCP,確實有助於水產加工品之衛生品質之改善,並增進消費者食用之安全性。
Seafood is a good source of protein and consumers request a high standard for the safty. Thus, most countries demand higher and higher standard for seafood, particulary in the developed countries. In those countries, Hazard Analyses Critical Control Point (HACCP) has become a standard procedure to ensure the quality and stafety of seafood. HACCP is a systerm which analyzes the potential risks from raw materials, processing, and distribution. Since HACCP has become a standard for seafood processing. Thus, the objecteive of this study was to understand the effect of implementation of HACCP by comparing the microbiolgical qualities of product and evironemntal samples obtained from the fishery processing factories with and without practing HACCP. In addition, the data of chemical residues and heavy metals were collected. Totally, four factories, two with the implemtation of HACCP and two did not, were chosen. Product and environmental samples were collected from the four factories from November 2011 to May 2012. The main products in the five fishery processing factories were tilapia, mackeral, sea bass, kingfish, yellowfin tuna, and the southern bluefin tuna. Ninteen product and 118 environmental samples were collected and analyzed. The microbiological tests included aerobic plate count (APC), coliform, Escherichia. coli, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and histamine forming bacteria. The residues of chemical and heavy metal in the two HACCP fishery processing factories were lower than the limit of U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( US FDA ) but there was no available data in the non-HACCP fishery processing factories. The average of aerobic plate and coliform counts in the product and environmental samples of the HACCP fishery processing factories were significantly lower than the non-HACCP fishery processing factories ( P <0.05 ). St. aureus counts were low in the fishery processing factories with or without the implementation of HACCP and while Salmonella were not detected. The counts of V. parahaemolyticus in the factories with or without the implementation of HACCP fishery processing showed no significant difference. Based on the results of this study, the implementation of HACCP in fishery processing factories improved the sanitary quality of the seafoods and enhanced the safety of consumer consumption.
中文摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X
壹、前言 - 1 -
貳、文獻整理 - 3 -
一、食品危害分析與重要管制點之起源與發展 - 3 -
二、我國實施HACCP制度之現況 - 6 -
三、實施HACCP制度之優點 - 8 -
四、水產品中毒流行之概況 - 8 -
五、水產品的細菌性中毒風險 - 9 -
5.1 腸炎弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)中毒 - 9 -
5.2 組織胺生成菌(Histamine-forming bacteria, HFB) - 11 -
5.3 沙門氏桿菌(Salmonella typhi)中毒 - 14 -
5.4 金黃色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)中毒 - 15 -
六、魚貝類之鮮度判定指標 - 16 -
6.1 總揮發性鹽基態氮 - 16 -
6.2 總生菌數(Aerobic plate count, APC) - 17 -
七、環境污染對人體之健康影響 - 17 -
7.1 水產品養殖藥物殘留之危害 - 17 -
7.2 重金屬殘留之危害 - 19 -
八、食品工廠ATP 冷光儀監測之應用 - 21 -
九、分子生物技術菌種鑑定 - 21 -
9.1 API 20E套組鑑定法 - 22 -
9.2 生物胺之分析方法 - 22 -
9.3 聚合酶鏈鎖反應 (Polymerase chain reaction, PCR) - 22 -
9.4 細菌 16S rDNA 之菌種鑑定 - 23 -
参、材料與方法 - 30 -
肆、結果 - 43 -
伍、討論 - 61 -
陸、結論 - 63 -
柒、附表 - 64 -
捌、參考文獻 - 75 -
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