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研究生:楊天成
研究生(外文):Yang, Tien-Cheng
論文名稱:台灣西南海域長牡蠣成長之研究
論文名稱(外文):Growth of oysters, Crassostrea gigas, from the southwest waters off Taiwan
指導教授:黃榮富黃榮富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Jung-Fu
口試委員:鄭文騰賴弘智葉信利
口試委員(外文):Cheng, Win-TonLai, Hong-ThihYeh, Shinn-Lih
口試日期:2012-07-02
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄海洋科技大學
系所名稱:水產養殖研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:牡蠣育肥成長環境因子水溫溶氧無機懸浮物
外文關鍵詞:oystergrowth rateenvironmental factorsfatteningtemperaturedissolved oxygenparticulate inorganic material
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台灣目前養殖牡蠣主要的生產區域位於台灣西南海域之彰化、雲林、嘉義及台南等縣市,養殖模式先於雲林、嘉義著苗,養殖至中蚵階段,再移殖至台南及續留當地進行育肥養殖,此模式其成效有需要予以科學評估。本研究經2010年11月至2012年2月逐月採樣彰化、雲林及台南三個海域的養殖牡蠣,並透過實際測量個體的殼長、殼寬、殼高及內部組織重量以分析其成長狀況,並記錄棲息海域的水質環境參數,以探討不同時空背景條件下對牡蠣生長的差異性。結果得知,牡蠣在相同海域不同測線間殼長、殼寬與殼高生長比例呈正相關性;三個海域牡蠣成長情形,以牡蠣內部組織亁重評量其成長量,得知台南安平海域在8月(2.54g±0.41)、彰化線西海域 (1.05g±0.40)及雲林口湖海域(2.01g±0.65)在 6月有較高成長;另由分析三個海域左殼與組織乾重的頻度度分布關係,在台南安平海域有較長的左殼及組織乾重的重量,經由牡蠣的成長分析得知三個海域的牡蠣成長台南安平海域的牡蠣成長速度明顯高於雲林口湖海域及彰化線西海域;另由分析水質環境發現,主要影響台灣西南海域牡蠣生長及死亡的環境因子來自溫度、溶氧及懸浮物質所造成;綜合牡蠣殼長及內部組織乾重之增加等成長因子探討牡蠣在移植育肥部分,經由結果發現在雲林地區將蚵苗養殖至4cm達中蚵養殖階段時,雲林地區的蚵農則會將部分中蚵移往台南地區進行成蚵育肥養成,而部分則留在雲林當地繼續養成,其中移往台南地區育肥的牡蠣成長成效明顯高於續養在雲林地區的牡蠣,顯示台灣現階段牡蠣往南移殖到台南進行育肥的養殖模式是有其成效。
關鍵字:牡蠣、育肥、成長、環境因子、水溫、溶氧、無機懸浮物

The main model of production of oysters in south-west open sea of
Taiwan is firstly to larval sttling in Yunlin and Chiayi, until oysters grow to their mid-size stage, then will be transported to Tainan for culturing to commercial size. The model of the production is not only increasing the costs of trasportation, but also increaing the death rate of oysters during transportation. Therefore, the effectiveness of the production model needed to be evaluated by science method. To understand the growth rate of oysters , the data of shell length, width and height of individual oyster and the dried weight of oyster's internal tissue were measured from different oyster farms for one year November 2010 to February 2012. The environmental factors, including pH, therometer and salinity were also recorded in site to analyze the relationship between water quality and oysters. The results showed that growth rate of valve length, width and height is in positive correlation among different survey line in the same water . The values of meat dry weight of internal tissues presented the
highest mode in June in Changhua (1.05g±0.40), and in August in
Yunlin(2.01g±0.65) and Tainan(2.54g±0.41);All significant differences (P<0.05), via the left valve and meat dry weight and the right valve relation to the meat dry weight between the three waters and the right valve with the left valve in Tainan Anping waters has long left valve and meat dry weight. In Yunlin waters , left valve and meat dry weight of the waters is longer and heavier that those in Changhua line West. In
Changhua line,the oysters of the Western Sea are developing from seedlings to adult oysters in the same area. In Yunlin lake waters oysters begins as autumn seedlings and start seedlings in the fall, until the oyster grow up to 4 cm then will be transported to Tainan water for its further
growth , and some will be kept in Yunlin water for its further development ,and the result shows that the affection of the oysters’ growth and death rate is related to the water temperature, dissolved oxygen and particulate inorganic material. Combine all the results the
effecteness on transplant oysters to Tainan is significant.

Key words:oyster、growth rate、environmental factors、fattening、
temperature、dissolved oxygen、particulate inorganic material


摘要……………………………………………………………………..Ⅰ
Abstract………………………………………………………………….Ⅱ
誌謝……………………………………………………………………..Ⅲ
目錄……………………………………………………………………..Ⅴ
表目錄………………………………………………………………......Ⅶ圖目錄…………………………………………………………………..Ⅷ
附表目錄………………………………………………………………XⅢ
壹、 前言………………………………………………………………..1
貳、 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………..3
一、 台灣牡蠣生態習性及分類……………………………………3
二、 環境對牡蠣生長的影響………………………………………6
三、 台灣牡蠣養殖現況……………………………………………8
參、 材料與方法……………………………………………………....13
一、 研究地點……………………………………………………..13
二、 採樣時間……………………………………………………..13
三、 不同地區牡蠣養殖環境檢測………………………………..14
四、 評估不同地區牡蠣養殖及其牡蠣成長之關係……………..15
五、 統計分析……………………………………………………..17
肆、 結果………………………………………………………………18
一、 牡蠣形質成長變化………………………………………….18
二、 各月別間不同海域之牡蠣成長變化……………………….20
三、 牡蠣在不同海域及測站間成長條件指數(CI值)…………..26
四、 牡蠣在不同海域間死亡情形……………………………….27
五、 牡蠣著苗期間在不同月別的變化………………………….27
六、 環境因子與牡蠣養殖的關係……………………………….28
七、 環境因子對牡蠣成長影響關係…………………………….34
伍、 討論………………………………………………………………35
一、 台灣沿近海牡蠣幼苗分佈………………………………….35
二、 台灣西南海域不同區域的牡蠣成長差異………………….36
三、 影響牡蠣成長的環境因子………………………………….37
四、 環境變化對牡蠣生長的影響……………………………….43
五、 牡蠣從雲林地區移殖到台南地區育肥是否有其成效…….45
陸、 結論………………………………………………………………46
柒、 參考文獻…………………………………………………………47
表目錄
Table 1 . 台灣牡蠣之種類及分佈……………………………………60
Table 2 . 台灣牡蠣各地區之成長情形…………………………........61
Table 3 . 台灣牡蠣各地區之採收期…………………………………62
Table 4 . 採樣地點經緯度分布………………………………………63
Table 5 . 台灣西南海域環境因子主成分分析………………………64
Table 6 . 台灣西南海域(彰化、雲林及台南地區)現階段牡蠣養殖成長
情形…………………………………………………………65

圖目錄
Fig 1. 牡蠣幼苗附苗器…………………………………………….....66
Fig 2. 牡蠣幼苗…………………………………………………….....66
Fig 3. 平掛式牡蠣養殖…………………………………………….....67
Fig 4 . 樁柱垂下式牡蠣養殖…………………………………………67
Fig 5 . 浮棚垂下式牡蠣養殖…………………………………………68
Fig 6 . 浮筒延繩垂下式牡蠣養殖……………………………………68
Fig 7 . 牡蠣研究採樣區………………………………………………69
Fig8 . 牡蠣外部形態測量………………………………………….....69
Fig9 . 牡蠣內部軟體組織………………………………………….....70
Fig10 . 牡蠣幼苗形質計測及附苗量計數…………………………….70
Fig 11. 牡蠣生長進程圖…………………………………………….....71
Fig 12. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域牡蠣生長進程圖………….71
Fig 13. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域牡蠣生長進程圖….………72
Fig 14. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域牡蠣生長進程圖….………72
Fig 15. 西元2010~2012年台灣西南海域牡蠣左殼頻度分佈圖…….73
Fig 16. 西元2010~2012年台灣西南海域牡蠣組織乾重頻度分佈圖.73
Fig 17. 牡蠣右殼與左殼關係圖…………………………………….....74
Fig 18. 台灣西南海域之牡蠣左殼長分佈圖………………………….75
Fig 19. 牡蠣組織乾重與左殼關係圖……………………………….....76
Fig 20. 台灣西南海域之牡蠣組織乾重分佈圖…………………….....77
Fig 21. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域蚵寮港外測站牡蠣各月左殼
頻度分佈圖…………………………………………………....78
Fig 22. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域蚵寮港外測站牡蠣各月組織
乾重頻度分佈圖……………………………………………....79
Fig 23. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域蚵寮港口測站牡蠣各月左殼
頻度分佈圖…………………………………………………....80
Fig 24. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域蚵寮港口測站牡蠣各月組織
乾重頻度分佈圖………………………………………………81
Fig 25. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域蚵寮港內測站牡蠣各月左殼
頻度分佈圖………………………………………………..…..82
Fig 26. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域蚵寮港內測站牡蠣各月組織
乾重頻度分佈圖……………………………………………....83
Fig 27. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域溪仔崙測站牡蠣各月左殼頻
度分佈圖……………………………………………………....84
Fig 28. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域溪仔崙測站牡蠣各月組織乾
重頻度分佈圖………………………………………………....85
Fig 29. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域三條崙測站牡蠣各月左殼頻
度分佈圖……………………………………………………....86
Fig 30. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域三條崙測站牡蠣各月組織乾
重頻度分佈圖………………………………………………....87
Fig 31. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域廣溝村測站牡蠣各月左殼頻
度分佈圖………………………………………………..……..88
Fig 32. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域廣溝村測站牡蠣各月組織乾
重頻度分佈圖………………………………………………....89
Fig 33. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域箔子寮測站牡蠣各月左殼頻
度分佈圖…………………………………………………..…..90
Fig 34. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域箔子寮測站牡蠣各月組織乾
重頻度分佈圖……………………………………………..…..91
Fig 35. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域青蚶村測站牡蠣各月左殼頻
度分佈圖……………………………………………………....92
Fig 36. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域青蚶村測站牡蠣各月組織乾
重頻度分佈圖…………………………………………………93
Fig 37. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域金湖測站牡蠣各月左殼頻度
分佈圖……………………………………………………..…..94
Fig 38. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域金湖測站牡蠣各月組織乾重
頻度分佈圖……………………………………………………95
Fig 39. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域四草溪出海口測站牡蠣各月
左殼頻度分佈圖……………………………………………....96
Fig 40. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域四草溪出海口測站牡蠣各月
組織乾重頻度分佈圖…………………………………………97
Fig 41. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域安平港嘴測站牡蠣各月左殼
頻度分佈圖…………………………………………………....98
Fig 42. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域安平港嘴測站牡蠣各月組織
乾重頻度分佈圖……………………………………………....99
Fig 43. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域安平港內測站牡蠣各月左殼
頻度分佈圖………………………………………………..…100
Fig 44. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域安平港內測站牡蠣各月組織
乾重頻度分佈圖……………………………………………..101
Fig 45. 西元2010~2012年不同海域測站間牡蠣CI值……………...102
Fig 46. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域各月別牡蠣CI值………...102
Fig 47. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域各月別牡蠣CI值………...103
Fig 48. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域各月別牡蠣CI值………...103
Fig 49. 西元2010~2012年不同海域測站間牡蠣死亡率……………104
Fig 50. 西元2011~2012年彰化線西海域各月別牡蠣死亡率………104
Fig 51. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域各月別牡蠣死亡率………105
Fig 52. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域各月別牡蠣死亡率………105
Fig 53. 西元2012年牡蠣幼苗在各月別著苗數量…………………..106
Fig 54. 西元2012年牡蠣幼苗在各月別著苗大小…………………..107
Fig 55. 西元2010~2012年不同海域各月別溫度分佈圖……………108
Fig 56. 西元2010~2012年不同海域各月別鹽度分佈圖……………108
Fig 57. 西元2010~2012年不同海域各月別pH分佈圖……………..109
Fig 58. 西元2010~2012年不同海域各月別溶氧分佈圖……………109
Fig 59. 西元2010~2012年彰化線西海域各月別葉綠素a分佈圖…110
Fig 60. 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域各月別葉綠素a分佈圖…111
Fig 61. 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域各月別葉綠素a分佈圖…112
Fig 62 . 西元2010~2012年彰化線西海域各月別POM分佈圖…….113
Fig 63 . 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域各月別POM分佈圖…….114
Fig 64 . 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域各月別POM分佈圖…….115
Fig 65 . 西元2010~2012年彰化線西海域各月別PIM分佈圖……...116
Fig 66 . 西元2010~2012年雲林口湖海域各月別PIM分佈圖……...117
Fig 67 . 西元2010~2012年台南安平海域各月別PIM分佈圖……...118
附表目錄
附表1 牡蠣左殼與採樣期間縣市別之univariate analysis………...119
附表2 牡蠣組織乾重與採樣期間縣市別之univariate analysis…...120
附表3 牡蠣成長條件指數CI值在採樣期間之ANOVA table……..121
附表4 牡蠣死亡率在採樣期間之ANOVA table…………………...122
附表5 牡蠣幼苗數量在採樣期間之ANOVA table………………...123
附表6 牡蠣幼苗大小在採樣期間之ANOVA table………………...124
附表7 水溫在採樣期間之ANOVA table…………………………..125
附表8 鹽度在採樣期間之ANOVA table…………………………..126
附表9 pH在採樣期間之ANOVA table……………………………127
附表10 溶氧在採樣期間之ANOVA table…………………………..128
附表 11 葉綠素A在採樣期間之ANOVA table……………………..129
附表 12 有機懸浮物在採樣期間之ANOVA table…………..……...131
附表 13 無機懸浮物在採樣期間之ANOVA table………………….133

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