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研究生:陳意婷
論文名稱:整合能力與開放式創新與研發團隊創新績效之關連
指導教授:林良陽林良陽引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:事業經營系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:196
中文關鍵詞:研發團隊開放式創新技術僵固性創新績效
外文關鍵詞:R&ampD TeamOpen InnovationTechnological RigidityInnovative Performance
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科技研發與創新具高度的複雜性、不確定性,也有高度的失敗風險。為了闡明環境的動態複雜性與企業競爭優勢之間的關連,不同的學術理論在不同階段被提出來。其中,從外部引入不同新構想或新技術的「開放式創新」概念近期廣為學術界與實務界所重視,期望能善用外部的構想、技術,以產出創新成果,而且也將有助於維持競爭優勢。儘管如此,本研究認為,開放式創新概念仍有待被釐清,且應可進一步與「技術僵固性」領域對話,這對於研發團隊克服本身技能不足的現象,甚或進一步精進、提升團隊本身的研發技術能量至另一階段,以更有效率的方式產生創新績效十分有助益。
過去文獻認為,研發團隊若產生核心僵固性,將負向影響其創新績效。本研究則認為,瞭解開放式創新在技術僵固性與創新績效所扮演的角色是重要的。不過,這議題似乎非過去研究者想像中單純。本研究認為,若能區辨開放式創新的不同型態,並探索其與不同技術僵固性間的關連,則研發團隊將能善用不同的開放式創新作為,以避免其技術僵固性發生的機會,進而提高研發團隊的創新績效。基於此,本研究欲探究的問題包括(1)技術僵固性可分為哪幾種不同類型?(2)開放式創新又可分為哪幾種不同類型?(3)開放式創新對技術僵固性與創新績效有何影響關係?
本研究採質性研究,針對三個個案進行訪談,截至目前訪談次數為16次,共計約18.5小時。本研究之研究結果發現,研發團隊之技術僵固性可分為技能僵固性、設備僵固性,以及發展僵固性;而研發團隊之開放式創新可分為創造型、利用型,以及應用型開放式創新。研究結果指出,研發團隊在缺乏不同的技術能力時,將會展現出不同的開放式創新,以降低技術僵固性發生,並對創新績效產生正面影響;也進一步發現在創新過程中存在著整合能力,扮演著協助、加速創新流程的進行。

There are highly complexity, uncertainty, and failure risk in R&D and innovation. In order to clarify the relationship of dynamic environmental complexity and business competitive advantage, some of the distinct literature theories were proposed. Among them, the concept of “Open Innovation”, bringing in new ideas or technologies from outside, is widely emphasized in literature and practice recently, looking forward to use ideas, technologies from outside to come out innovative outcomes and keep competitive advantages. In spite of this, this research suggests that the concept of open innovation still need to be clarified, and can be further linked to “Technological Rigidity” , and this could be very helpful for R&D team to overcome skill insufficiency, or even reinforcement R&D team’s R&D capability to another level, and use more efficient way to generate innovative performance.
Past literature considered that R&D teams with core rigidity will have negative impacts on innovative performance. This study suggests that understanding the role of open innovation among technological rigidity and innovative performanc is important. However, it seems that this issue isn’t as simple as other researchers think. This research proposes that open innovation might be divided into different types. If we could explore the relationships between different types of open innovation and technological rigidity, R&D teams can moderately reduce their technological rigidity to avoid technical rigidity, and promote the innovative performance of R&D teams. Based on this, the research questions of this study include (1) How many types of technological rigidity? (2) How many types of open innovation? (3) What’s the influence of open innovation on technological rigidity and innovative performance?
The qualitative method was adopted in this study with two cases selected as research targets. Until now, we had already interviewed 16 times and 18.5 hours totally. Our research suggest that R&D team’s technical rigidity can be divided into skill rigidity, equipment rigidity, and development rigidity; and R&D team’s open innovation can be divided into creative, exploitative, and applicable open innovation. The result points out that when R&D team is lack of different types of technical capability, they will demonstrate different types of open innovation to avoid technical rigidity and make positive impact to innovative performance; the result also shows that there is integration capability, which plays a role of assist, accelerate the process of innovative process.

第一章 緒論… ………………………...…………………………...………………1
第一節、研究背景與動機……………………… ……….………………………1
第二節、研究目的與研究問題………………… ………………………………4
第三節、研究流程……………………… ………………………………………5
第二章 文獻探討……… …………………………………………………………7
第一節、開放式創新 … ……………… ………………………………………7
一、開放式創新的定義……………………………………….. .…………7
二、開放式創新之內涵…… ……………………………...… ………… 11
三、研發團隊之開放式創新類型…… …………………...… ………… 12
四、小結…………………………..…………………………... …………16
第二節、技術僵固性…………………...………………… ……………………18
一、核心僵固性的定義……………………………………..….…………18
二、研發團隊核心僵固性之構面 ………………………..……. ………20
三、研發團隊技術僵固性之構面…………..………………….…………22
四、小結…………………………………………………..…….…………25
第三節、創新績效…………………….…………………………….…………27
第三章 研究設計與方法…………………..……………………...……………31
第一節、質性研究法與個案研究方法………………………………………..31
第二節、個案研究設計與選擇……………………………………………..…34
第三節、資料蒐集之原則……………………………………………………..39
第四節、質性研究評量… …… ………………………………………………43
第五節、研究信效度… …… …………………………………………………44
第四章 個案介紹………...………………..………… ……………………………47
第一節、「X系統」研發計畫案……………………………………………45
第二節、「Y產品」研發計畫案…………………………………………….55
第三節、「Z平台」研發計畫案……… ……………………………………64
第五章 跨案例比較分析與研究命題…. .……………………..….…………73
第一節、技術能力不足與創新績效 ……………………………………..73
第二節、因應技術能力不足之開放式創新………………………………97
第三節、創新績效……………………… ………………………………131
第四節、整合能力……… ………………………………………………146
第五節、研究架構…………………………………………… …………157
第六章 研究發現與討論 .………..………………………..……...……… …159
一、 研發團隊技能僵固性與創造型開放式創新.……………………159
二、 研發團隊設備僵固性與利用型開放式創新.……………………160
三、 研發團隊發展僵固性與應用型開放式創新.……………………161
四、 開放式創新與創新績效… …………… …………………………162
五、 整合能力與開放式創新… …………… …………………………162
第七章 結論與建議... ………..………………………. ………….… …...……165
第一節、結論……………………………………………………………..165第二節、理論貢獻與管理意涵…… ………… ………………………. .168
第三節、研究限制與後續研究建議………………………… …………171
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………173
附錄…………………………………………………………………………………191

表次
表2-1各學者對開放式創新的定義………………………………………………10
表2-2各學者對核心僵固的定義………………………………………………… 20
表2-3技術能力的分類………… …………………………………………………25
表2-4各學者對創新績效的定義… ………………………………………………29
表3-1不同研究方法所適用的條件… … ………………………………………… 33
表3-2個案選取之基準………………………………………………………… …38
表3-3受訪對象與受訪時間……………………………………………………… 39
表5-1 M研發團隊技術能力不足現象整理表……… ………………………… …76
表5-2 N研發團隊技術能力不足現象整理表………………………………………81
表5-3 O公司技術能力不足現象整理表………………………………………… 90
表5-4 M研發團隊之創造型開放式創新……………………………………………99
表5-5 N研發團隊之創造型開放式創新………………………………………… 101
表5-6 O公司之創造型開放式創新………………………………………………104
表5-7技能不足與創造型開放式創新……………………………………………106
表5-8M研發團隊之利用型開放式創新… ………………………………………109
表5-9 N研發團隊之利用型開放式創新…………………………………………113
表5-10 O公司之利用型開放式創新………………………………………………116
表5-11設備能力不足與利用型開放式創新……… ……………………………117
表5-12 M研發團隊之應用型開放式創新…………………………………………120
表5-13 N研發團隊之應用型開放式創新…………………………………………123
表5-14 O公司之應用型開放式創新………………………………………………128
表5-15發展能力不足與應用型開放式創新… …………………………………130
表5-16 M研發團隊之創新績效……………………………………………………134
表5-17 N研發團隊之創新績效……………………………………………………139
表5-18 O公司之創新績效…………………………………………………………142
表5-19研發團隊之整合能力……… ……………………………………………155


圖次
圖1-1本研究流程圖…………………………………………………………………6
圖2-1封閉式創新模型………………………………………………………………7
圖2-2開放式創新模型………………………………………………………………8
圖2-3開放式創新的類型示意圖……………………………………………… …13
圖2-4利用型開放式創新示意圖 …………………………………………………14
圖2-5創造型開放式創新示意圖 …………………………………………………15
圖2-6應用型開放式創新示意圖………………………………………………… 16
圖3-1本研究個案流程圖 …………………………………………………………42
圖4-1 2002年至2007年台灣醫療器材產值以及出口……………………………47
圖4-2 X系統原理圖(1)……………………………………………………………51
圖4-3 X系統原理圖(2)……………………………………………………………52
圖4-4 X系統研發歷程 ……………………………………………………………54
圖4-5台灣平面顯示器產業的產值與附加價值 …………………………………56
圖4-6 Y產品研發歷程 ……………………………………………………………63
圖5-1 M研發團隊創新績效示意圖 …………………………………………… 135
圖5-2 N研發團隊創新績效示意圖 … ………………………………………… 140
圖5-3 O公司創新績效示意圖……………………………………………………144
圖5-4研究架構 ………………………………………………………………… 157

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