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研究生:郭靜宜
研究生(外文):Ching-Yi Kuo
論文名稱:萊德的生平、作品與藝術
論文名稱(外文):RYDER, HIS LIFE, WORKS AND ART
指導教授:康輝安康輝安引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hui-An Kang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:美術學系
學門:藝術學門
學類:美術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:219
中文關鍵詞:艾伯特‧賓漢‧萊德獨立性浪漫主義象徵主義現代藝術
外文關鍵詞:Albert Pinkham Ryderunique characterRomanticismSymbolismmodern art
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艾伯特‧賓漢‧萊德是十九世紀中後期典型的美國本土藝術家,畢生都生活於美國。儘管未曾跟隨當時的風潮正式習藝於歐洲,也沒有被美國的學院傳統影響;對萊德而言,卻從來沒有因此對他的創作能力與繪畫觀念產生限制,反而促使他的作品在當時代擁有顯著的獨立性特質。在萊德自1870年代開始的藝術生涯中,風景題材一直是貫穿其創作生命的主題,無論鄉村或是海洋風景,他展現的都不僅只是對自然描繪,而是透過進一步的轉化,建立起個人對自然的詮釋特色。除了風景畫以外,1880年代後取材自文學、宗教和神話的作品,展現的是萊德在個人內涵與表現技法都逐漸成熟的時期,對於多元題材的嘗試。這些畫作往往也都不受限於文本內容、或是過去的圖像傳統;而總是呈現出另一種藝術家蘊藏於作品之下的深刻情感,以及對所見真實的想像。因此,即便萊德終其一生都在美國創作,但他不拘於歐美任何一方表現傳統的多樣性和個殊性,已使他跨越時空與地域的藩籬。讓他的作品不只帶有浪漫主義的不羈情懷,也有著象徵主義畫作中的精神性與象徵性暗示。甚至因為他的獨立性與開創性,使他在十九、二十世紀交替之間,成為新一代藝術家推崇的對象,成功扮演了引領美國現代藝術發展的重要本土藝術家。
Albert Pinkham Ryder who lived in United States all his life is a typical and native artist of United States in the middle and the end of 19th century. He had not followed the trend to learn arts in Europe, and also had never been affected by the academy’s tradition of America. However, his creativity and the concept of painting had never been limited; on the contrary, those differences made his works have the notably unique character. In Ryder’s art life from 1870s, the subject of landscape was a theme that ran through his life of creation. No matter the pastoral or marine, he not only presented the depiction of the nature, but also built up his personal feature to express the nature through transforming the objects. Except the landscape, after 1880s, he obtained his inspiration from literature, religion and mythology. This showed Ryder’s diversity of themes and the gradual maturity of his personal inwardness and the skill of expression. The text or the traditional iconology did not restrict the content of these works that always presented artist’s deep emotion under them and the imagination of visual true. Although Ryder spent his whole life to create paintings in United States; his variety and particularity that did not stiff in any tradition of expression of Europe and America made him surmount the hedge of the space-time and region. Therefore, his works had not only the unconfined feelings of Romanticism, but also the spiritual and symbolic intimation like the painting of Symbolism. Because of his unique character and initiation, he was regarded as a laudable role by the artists of new generation, and successfully acted an important and native artist to lead the development of United States’ modern art between the late 19th and the early 20th century.
前言 i
導論 1
第一章 萊德的時代與生平 3
第一節 新大陸藝術的起始與發展 3
第二節 童年與藝術養成時期 (1847-1877) 9
第三節 風格確立時期 (1877-1900) 14
第四節 晚年時期 (1900-1917) 20
第二章 萊德的繪畫作品分析 25
第一節 風景題材 25
一、鄉村風景 26
二、海洋風景 37
第二節 文學性題材 44
一、莎士比亞戲劇 45
二、華格納音樂劇 51
三、其它文學作品 55
第三節 宗教、神話題材 67
一、宗教主題 67
二、神話主題 72
第三章 萊德的藝術風格與影響 78
第一節 浪漫主義或象徵主義? 78
第二節 萊德藝術的「獨立性」 88
第三節 美國現代藝術的領航者 95
結論 103
附錄 105
萊德詩歌 105
參考書目 108
圖版 112
一、圖版目錄 112
二、圖版內容 125

外文書籍

ADAMS, Steven, The Barbizon School & the Origins of Impressionism, London : Phaidon Press, 1994
BROWN, Milton Wolf, American painting: from the Armory Show to the depression, Princeton, New. Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1955
BURNS, Sarah& DAVIS, John, American Art to 1900: A Documentary History, University of California Press, 2009
CALO, Mary Ann(ed), Critical Issues in American Art: A Book of Readings, Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998
CLANCY, Jonathan, Transcendentalism and The Crisis of Self in American Art and Culture, 1830- 1930, The City University of New York, 2008
CAMPBELL, Thomas, The Poetical Works of Thomas Campbell Vol. II, London: Henry Colburn, New Burlington Street, 1828
COLERIDGE, Derwent and Sara(ed), The Poetical Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1857
DORRA, Henrri(ed), Symbolist Art Theories, University of California Press, Berleeley, Los Angels, London, 1994
FINK, Lois Marie, American Art at the Nineteenth-Century Paris Salons, Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art
GRIMM, Carl, A Study of Authenticity in Paintings Attributed to Albert Pinkham Ryder, University of Delaware, 2000
GOLDWATER, Robert, Symbolism, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1979
GOODRICH, Lloyd, Albert P. Ryder, New York: G. Braziller, 1959
HOMER, William Innes, GOODRICH, Lloyd, Albert Pinkham Ryder, Painter of Dreams, New York: Abrams, 1989
HONOUR, Hugh, Romanticism, London, New York, 1979
HUGHES, Robert, American Visions: The Epic History of Art in America, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997
JOHNSON, Diane Chalmers, American Symbolist Art: Nineteenth-Century “Poets in Paint”: Washington Allston, John La Farge, William Rimmer, George Inness, and Albert Pinkham Ryder, Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004
LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth, DARLEY, F. O. C. illustrated, Evangeline, Boston; New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1883
MAINARDI, Patricia, The End of The Salon: Art and The State in The Early Third Republic, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993
MATHIEU, Pierre-Louise, The Symbolist Generation, Skira Geneve, 1990
MCCOUBREY, John W, American Art 1700-1960, Sources and Documents, New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs, 1965
MUMFORD, Lewis, The Brown Decades: A Study of The Arts in America, 1865-1895, New York, Dover Publications, 1955
NOVAK, Barbara, American Painting of The Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and The American Experience, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
NOVAK, Barbara, Nineteenth- Century American Painting, The Thyssen- Bornemisza Collection, London: Sotheby's Publications: Distribuzione esclusiva in Italia Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, c1986
NOVAK, Barbara, Voyages of The Self: Pairs, Parallels, and Patterns in American art and Literature, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
POPS, Martin, The Life and Art of Albert Pinkham Ryder (1847-1917): The Achievement of an American Artist, Lewiston, Queenston, Lampeter: The Edwin Mellen Press, 2011
ROSENBLUM Robert, JASON, H.W., Art of the Nineteenth Century, London: Thames & Hudson, 1984
SHERMAN, Frederic Fairchild, Albert Pinkham Ryder, New York, 1920
SOUTHEY, Robert, Madoc Vol. I, London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, and A. Constable and Co. Edinburgh, 1812
TAYLOR, Joshua Charles, The Fine Arts in America, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, c1979

展覽型錄

1918: Albert P. Ryder Memorial Exhibition, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
1947: Albert P. Ryder Centenary Exhibition, New York: Whitney Museum of American Art
1979: The American Renaissance 1876-1917, Brooklyn: The Brooklyn Museum
1979: American Imagination and Symbolist Painting, New York: Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York University
1990-91: Albert Pinkham Ryder, Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art; New York: Brooklyn Museum
2000: Rave Reviews: American Art and Its Critics, 1826-1925, New York: National Academy of Design
2006: Americans in Paris, 1860-1900, London: National Gallery

期刊論文

BOIME, Albert, “Newman, Ryder, Couture and Hero-Worship in Art History”, American Art Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn, 1971, pp. 5-22
CARNEY, James D., “A Historical Theory of Art Criticism”, Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring, 1994, pp. 13-29
DICKSON, Ted and WALLACE, Chris, “The Art Museum: Arts in the Gilded Age, 1865- 1900”, Magazine of History, Vol. 13, No. 4, Summer, 1999, pp. 48-51
EVANS, Dorinda, “Albert Pinkham Ryder's Use of Visual Sources”, Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 21, No. 1, Spring 1986, pp. 21-40
HALE, Robert Beverly, “American Painting 1754-1954”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, New Series, Vol. 12, No. 7, Mar., 1954, pp. 169-191
HARRIS, Neil, “The Gilded Age Reconsidered Once Again”, Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4, 1983, pp. 8-18
HOMER, William Innes, “A Group of Paintings and Drawings by Ryder”, Record of the Art Museum, Princeton University, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1959, pp. 17-33
JOHNSON, Diane Chalmers, “ ‘Siegfried and the Rhine Maidens’: Albert Pinkham Ryder's Response to Richard Wagner's ‘Götterdämmer’ ”, American Art, Vol. 8, No. 1, Winter, 1994, pp. 22-31
TAYLOR, Kendall, EVERGOOD, Philip and FITZPATRICK, Charles, “Ryder Remembered”, Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1984, pp. 3-16
ZALESCH, Saul E., “Competition and Conflict in the New York Art World, 1874- 1879”, Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 29, No. 2/3, Summer- Autumn, 1994, pp. 103-120

中文書籍

BELL-VILLADA, Gene H.著,《唯美主義二百年》,陳大道譯,臺北市:胡桃木文化,2006
GAY, Peter著,《現代主義─異端的誘惑》,梁永安譯,臺北縣:立緒文化,2009
王其鈞編著,《淡漠的痕跡─美洲藝術》,重慶:重慶出版社,2010
王瑞雲著,《美國美術史話》,北京:人民美術出版社,1998
艾倫坡著,《艾倫坡短篇小說集》,陳良廷、徐汝椿、馬愛農譯,北京:人民文學出版社,1998
伍蠡輔、翁義欽合著,《歐洲文論簡史》,北京:人民文學出版社,2005二版。
呂健忠、李奭學編譯,《近代西洋文學─新古典主義迄現代》,臺北市:書林,2007
呂健忠、李奭學編譯,《新編西洋文學概論─上古迄文藝復興》,臺北市:書林,2009
保羅‧約翰遜(Paul Johnson)著,《美國人的歷史(全三冊)》,秦傳安譯,中央編譯出版社,2010
馬鳳林著,《象徵主義》,武漢:湖北美術出版社,2005
馬鳳林著,《浪漫主義》,武漢:湖北美術出版社,2005
郭西萌編著,《美國藝術》,石家莊:河北教育出版社,2003
崔慶忠著,《現代派美術史話》,北京:人民美術出版社,2000
濟慈著,《濟慈詩選》,馬文通譯,臺北市:桂冠,1995
羅基敏、梅樂亙(Jürgen Maehder)著,《華格納‧《指環》‧拜魯特》,臺北市:高談文化,2006
蘇珊‧戴維森(Susan Davidson)編,《美國藝術三百年 : 適應與革新》,周郎、忻華、張少鐸譯,上海巿 : 上海辭書,2007

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