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研究生:莊郁寧
研究生(外文):Yu-Ning Juang
論文名稱:賽德克語太魯閣方言之否定詞研究
論文名稱(外文):Negation in Truku Seediq
指導教授:魏廷冀魏廷冀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ting-Chi Wei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:179
中文關鍵詞:太魯閣語賽德克語泰雅語南島語否定詞
外文關鍵詞:TrukuSeediqAtayalFormosan languagenegator
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本論文為賽德克語太魯閣方言否定詞使用之研究。一般而言,太魯閣語本身有五個獨立的否定詞素:一個祈使句否定詞iya與四個用於直述句的否定詞,分別為ini、ungat、aji以及uxay。較特別的是,日語的否定詞ilan現今在太魯閣語否定句中也被廣泛地使用。因此,ilan的使用與分布也被列入本文的討論範圍之中。此文除了比較泛泰雅語系否定詞的句法分佈及使用之外,更進一步比較太魯閣方言與賽德克方言的否定詞素及用法。

本論文依主題分成六個章節探討之。第一章與第二章分別為太魯閣語的語言結構與文獻探討。在第三章中,我們討論了太魯閣語的祈使結構,並且發現唯一能使用於否定祈使句的否定詞素為 iya,且肯定與否定祈使句的焦點系統皆相同。另外一種祈使結構為勸使句,而肯定勸使句與否定勸使句的焦點系統不僅共通,更與祈使句的焦點系統通用。第四章討論否定直述句。否定直述句的焦點系統會因不同否定詞的使用而有所改變。其中,含有否定詞素ilan的句子中,除了可以使用直述句的焦點系統之外,某些句子中的動詞則保持原形形式。而在直述句的種種句型中,使用最廣泛的否定詞為aji與uxay,反之,最少被使用到的否定詞則為祈使否定詞iya與外來詞彙ilan。對於詞類劃分而言,我們認為aji、ungat和uxay可以當動詞以及助動詞,然而iya、ini與ilan只能作為助動詞使用。第五章則為處所、存在和領屬句的討論。否定詞在這三種句型中的使用更為複雜,除了領屬句之外,處所與存在句皆可被一個以上的否定詞否定之。我們也發現這三種結構皆使用同一動詞eniq。然而,除了領屬句外的兩種句型其餘皆可使用eniq之外的其他動詞。第六章為結論。此章節不僅總結與整合太魯閣語否定詞的分佈與句法特徵,也將太魯閣語與泛泰雅語系和部分台灣南島語的否定詞比較之。並提出一些本文有待解決的議題,企望未來能得以解決與找到答案。

The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of negators in Truku Seediq. In general, five negative morphemes exist in Truku — an imperative negator, iya, and four negators, ini, aji, ungat and uxay, applied in the declarative construction. Still another borrowing, ilan, a Japanese lexicon, is extensively used in Truku nowadays. In this regard, the use and the distribution of ilan in Truku are in the discussion. In addition to comparing the syntactic distributions and the use of negators among some Atayalic languages, in this research we also make a thorough comparison and contrast between Truku and Seediq.
This research is organized into six chapters. Chpater 1 and Chapter 2 are respectively the introduction of the profile of Truku and literature review. Chapter 3 deals with the imperative construction. It is shown that the only negator used in negative imperative sentences is iya, and the affirmative and negative imperatives share the same voice marking system. Another imperative construction is the hortative. We observe that not only the voice system in affirmative and negative hortartives is identical but the voice system in hortatives is equivalent to that utilized in imperatives as well. The declarative construction is discussed in Chapter 4. The voice marking system varies with negators in the negative declarative construction. What is noteworthy is that, apart from the fact that declarative voice markers can be applied to the sentences with ilan, verb would be in root form in some other sentences initiated with ilan. Of the sentence patterns, aji and uxay are put to use most; on the other hand, the least used negators in Truku are iya and the borrowing, ilan. As for grammatical category of each negator, we deem that aji, ungat and uxay can be either verb or auxiliary, yet iya, ini and ilan can only be used as auxiliary. Chapter 5 researches into the locative, existential and possessive constructions. The use of negative morphemes is much intricate. More than one negator can be used for negating the locative and existential constructions. Another finding is that eniq is the verb utilized in three of the constructions, however, other verbs are also applicable in both the locative and existential constructions. Conclusion is put in Chapter 6, summarizing the syntactic characteristics and distributions of negators in Truku. Simultaneously this chapter also includes the comparison and contrast among negators in Truku and in several Atayalic languages, as well as in some of the Formosan languages. Issues and problems not solved yet are in the last chapter as well, and are expected to be solved in the future.

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables ……………………………………………………… xi
Abbreviations and Symbols ……………………………………………………… xiv

Chapter 1: Introduction ……………………………………………………… 1
1.1 The profile of Truku ……………………………………………………… 1
1.2 Goal
……………………………………………………… 2
1.3 Methodology
……………………………………………………… 3
1.4 Sketch of Truku grammar
……………………………………………………… 4
1.4.1 Phonemic inventory
……………………………………………………… 4
1.4.2 Syllable structure and stress
……………………………………………………… 5
1.4.3 Word order
……………………………………………………… 7
1.4.4 Voice system
……………………………………………………… 9
1.4.5 Tense
……………………………………………………… 13
1.4.6 Aspect
……………………………………………………… 15
1.4.7 Case-marking system
……………………………………………………… 18
1.4.8 Personal pronominal system
……………………………………………………… 20
1.4.9 Demonstrative system
……………………………………………………… 22
1.5 Organization
……………………………………………………… 23

Chapter 2: Literature Review
……………………………………………………… 25
2.1 Previous Studies on negation in Atayalic languages ……………………………………………………… 25
2.1.1 Distribution of negators in Atayalic languages
……………………………………………………… 25
2.1.2 The comparison among negators in Atayalic languages ……………………………………………………… 26
2.1.3 The grammatical category of negators
……………………………………………………… 30
2.2 Chen’s (1996) study on negation in Seediq
……………………………………………………… 34
2.2.1 Seediq negation in the imperative construction ……………………………………………………… 34
2.2.2 Seediq negation in the declarative construction ……………………………………………………… 36
2.2.3 Seediq negation in the locational constructions ……………………………………………………… 38
2.3 Previous Studies on negation in some other Formosan languages ……………………………………… 41
2.4 Summary
……………………………………………………… 43

Chapter 3: iya in the imperative construction ……………………………………………………… 44
3.1 Affirmative imperatives
……………………………………………………… 44
3.1.1 The structure of imperatives in Truku ……………………………………………………… 45
3.1.2 The voice system of the affirmative imperatives
……………………………………………………… 46
3.1.3 The voice system of the affirmative hortatives ……………………………………………………… 52
3.1.4 The voices system of the affirmative imperatives in Seediq …………………………………………… 54
3.2 Negative imperatives
……………………………………………………… 55
3.2.1 The negator iya
……………………………………………………… 56
3.2.2 The voice system of the negative imperatives ……………………………………………………… 56
3.2.3 The voice system of the negative hortatives ……………………………………………………… 61
3.2.4 The imperative construction with state verb
……………………………………………………… 64
3.2.5 The comparison between negative imperatives in Truku and Seediq ……………………………………… 65
3.3 Summary
……………………………………………………… 67

Chapter 4: ini, ungat, aji, uxay and ilan in the declarative construction ………………… 69
4.1 Voice system of the affirmative and negative declarative constructions ……………… 69
4.1.1 The voice system of the affirmative declarative construction …………………………………… 70
4.1.2 The voice system of the negative declarative construction …………………………………… 71
4.1.2.1 The AV marker of each negator
………………………………………………………… 71
4.1.2.2 The PV marker of each negator
………………………………………………………… 77
4.1.2.3 The LV marker of each negator
………………………………………………………… 80
4.1.2.4 The IV (BV) marker of each negator
………………………………………………………… 83
4.1.2.5 Meanings of negators
………………………………………………………… 88
4.1.2.6 Interim Summary
………………………………………………………… 91
4.2 Negation of the construction with state verb ………………………………………………………… 94
4.2.1 Affirmative declarative sentences with state verb ………………………………………………………… 94
4.2.2 Negative declarative sentences with state verb ………………………………………………………… 95
4.2.3 The comparison between sentences with statives in Truku and Seediq ………………………………… 97
4.3 Equational sentences
………………………………………………………… 99
4.3.1 Affirmative equational sentences
………………………………………………………… 99
4.3.2 Negative equational sentences
………………………………………………………… 100
4.3.3 The comparison between equational sentences in Truku and Seediq ………………………………………… 102
4.4 Cleft sentences
………………………………………………………… 104
4.4.1 Affirmative cleft sentences
………………………………………………………… 104
4.4.2 Negative cleft sentences
………………………………………………………… 107
4.4.3 The comparison between cleft sentences in Truku and Seediq ……………………………………………… 108
4.5 Negative answer
………………………………………………………… 111
4.6 Double negative sentences
………………………………………………………… 114
4.7 The negatees and grammatical category of negators in Truku ………………………………………………… 116
4.8 Summary
………………………………………………………… 125



Chapter 5: Negators in the locational constructions ………………………………………………………… 128
5.1 The locational constructions
………………………………………………………… 128
5.2 The locative construction ………………………………………………………… 129
5.2.1 The affirmative locative construction ………………………………………………………… 129
5.2.2 The negative locative construction ………………………………………………………… 132
5.3 The existential construction ………………………………………………………… 137
5.3.1 The affirmative existential construction ………………………………………………………… 137
5.3.2 The negative existential construction ………………………………………………………… 140
5.4 The possessive construction ………………………………………………………… 142
5.4.1 The affirmative possessive construction ………………………………………………………… 142
5.4.2 The negative possessive construction ………………………………………………………… 146
5.5 The comparison of locational constructions between Truku and Seediq ……………………………… 147
5.6 Summary
………………………………………………………… 150

Chapter 6: Conclusion
………………………………………………………… 151
6.1 The distribution and classification of negators in Truku ………………………………………………… 151
6.2 Voice system of negators in Truku ………………………………………………………… 152
6.3 Grammatical category of negators in Truku ………………………………………………………… 154
6.4 The comparison of negation among Atayalic languages ………………………………………………………… 154
6.5 The comparison of negation among Formosan languages ………………………………………………………… 155
6.6 Recapitulation
………………………………………………………… 158

References
………………………………………………………… 160



Lists of Figures

Figure 1-1 Subgrouping of Atayalic languages
………………………………………………………… 2



Lists of Tables

Table 1-1 Information of informants
………………………………………………………… 4
Table 1-2 Consonants in Truku
………………………………………………………… 5
Table 1-3 Vowels in Truku
………………………………………………………… 5
Table 1-4 Possible syllable structures in Truku
………………………………………………………… 6
Table 1-5 Stress in Truku
………………………………………………………… 6
Table 1-6 Voice system in Truku
………………………………………………………… 10
Table 1-7 The correspondence between voice markers and semantic roles …………………………… 13
Table 1-8 The correspondence of voice markers and tense ……………………………………………… 15
Table 1-9 The representation of aspect in Truku ………………………………………………………… 18
Table 1-10 Personal pronominal system in Truku
………………………………………………………… 21
Table 2-1 The distribution of negators in Atayalic languages ………………………………………… 26
Table 2-2 The voice system of each negator in Seediq ………………………………………………………… 27
Table 2-3 The co-occurrence restriction between negators and the following predicates in Taoshan Atayal
………………………………………………………… 28
Table 2-4 Voice system of negators in Saisiyat ………………………………………………………… 30
Table 2-5 Negators in Seediq ………………………………………………………… 31
Table 2-6 Voice system of negators in Taoshan ………………………………………………………… 32
Table 2-7 Voice system of the imperative construction in Seediq ………………………………………… 36
Table 2-8 The voice system of the declarative construction in Seediq ……………………… 38
Table 2-9 The organization of locative, existential and possessive constructions in Seediq … 40
Table 2-10 The distribution of negators in Seediq ………………………………………………………… 41
Table 2-11 Negators in Amis, Atayal, Paiwan, Rukai, Saisiyat and Tsou ……………………………… 42
Table 2-12 Order and marking related to negation ………………………………………………………… 42
Table 3-1 The voice system of affirmative declarative and affirmative imperative constructions in Truku
………………………………………………………… 52
Table 3-2 The voice system of affirmative imperative and affirmative hortative constructions in Truku ………………………………………………………… 54
Table 3-3 The voice system of affirmative imperatives in Seediq ………………………………………… 55
Table 3-4 The voice system of the affirmative and negative imperative constructions in Truku ………………………………………………………… 61
Table 3-5 The voice system of the affirmative and negative hortative constructions in Truku ………………………………………………………… 64
Table 3-6 The voice system of the negative imperatives in Truku and Seediq ………… 66
Table 3-7 The voice system of negative hortatives in Truku and Seediq ………………………………… 67
Table 4-1 The voice system of the declarative construction in Truku ………………………… 71
Table 4-2 The AV marker of each negator in the declarative construction …………………… 77
Table 4-3 The PV marker of each negator in the declarative construction …………………… 80
Table 4-4 The LV marker of each negator in the declarative construction …………………… 83
Table 4-5 The IV (BV) marker of each negator in the declarative construction …………………… 88
Table 4-6 The meanings of the declarative negators in Truku ………………………………………………… 91
Table 4-7 The voice system of each negator in Truku ………………………………………………………… 91
Table 4-8 The characteristics of the declarative negators in Truku ...................... 92
Table 4-9 The comparison of the use of negators in some of the sentence patterns between Truku and Seediq
………………………………………………………… 110
Table 4-10 The negatees of each negator in the declarative construction in Truku ……… 118
Table 4-11 Negators in Seediq ………………………………………………………… 119
Table 4-12 The grammatical category of negators in Truku ………………………………………………… 125
Table 4-13 Distribution of five negators in some declarative sentence patterns …………… 127
Table 5-1 Locative/Existential/Possessive constructions …………………………………… 129
Table 5-2 Locative, existential and possessive constructions in Truku ……………………… 149
Table 5-3 Locative, existential and possessive constructions in Seediq …………………… 149
Table 6-1 The distribution of negators in Truku ………………………………………………………… 152
Table 6-2 The voice system of negators in Truku ………………………………………………………… 153
Table 6-3 The voice system of negators in Seediq ………………………………………………………… 153
Table 6-4 The grammatical category of negators in Truku ………………………………………………… 154
Table 6-5 The distribution of negators in Atayalic languages …………………………………………… 155
Table 6-6 Negators in several Formosan languages ………………………………………………………… 155
Table 6-7 Order and marking related to negation ………………………………………………………… 156
Table 6-8 Tripartite classification of Formosan languages …………………………………………… 157

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