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研究生(外文):Chia-ping Weng
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Alternative Female Voices in Doris Lessing's The Grass Is Singing, Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale, and Toni Morrison's Paradise
指導教授(外文):Dr. Yih-fan Chang
外文關鍵詞:feminismfemale voicesThe Grass Is SingingThe Handmaid's TaleParadise
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Women have long been regarded as the muted and marginalized group whose inscription is dominated by the master narrative which reduces women to the position of lack and absence. This dissertation examines three texts by women writers, namely Doris Lessing’s The Grass Is Singing, Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale, and Toni Morrison’s Paradise. It aims to illustrate ways in which women provide alternative versions to rebel against masculine domination and manipulation. Employing a feminist perspective, this dissertation scrutinizes the vital role of female articulation in the formation of resistance, counter memories, and subjectivity. The introductory chapter provides historical contexts of the three novels and theoretical reviews on three-wave feminisms in order to re-evaluate the three female writers’ contribution in the field of female articulation. Three aspects of female articulation—resistance, counter memories, and subjectivity—are explored in the following chapters respectively. Chapter Two examines The Grass Is Singing by analyzing the social context in South Africa during the 1950s with a focus on the protagonist Mary’s sexual identities, and how she uses her small personal voice to initiate resistance. Chapter Three reads The Handmaid’s Tale with a specific attention on Offred’s fluid identities, destruction and reconstruction of language, and her subversive voice of silence to affirm the exertion of counter memories as a powerful weapon to rebel against the totalitarian Gilead. Chapter Four discusses Paradise by exploring the concept of demonized other, battles between master narrative and non-hierarchical narratives, and the idea of speaking the unspeakable to explicate the importance of reshaping female subjectivity. To conclude this dissertation reiterates the fact that women are in the process of identity development, striving to make their voices heard and initiating significant social and political changes. Hence, multiple ways to interpret the hybridity of female experiences and differences are expected.
Chapter One
Introduction 1
Motivation 2
Historical Context of the Fictions 4
Theoretical Reviews 8
Thesis Organization 17
Chapter Two
The Grass Is Singing: First-wave Feminism—Resisting Patriarchal Power 19
General Introduction to First-wave Feminism 20
The Colonial Legacy 27
Mary’s Sexual Identities 45
Mary’s Small Personal Voice 60
Chapter Three
The Handmaid’s Tale: Second-wave Feminism—Remembering Counter Memories 75
General Introduction to Second-wave Feminism 76
Offred’s Fluid Identities 86
Destruction and Reconstruction of Language 108
Offred’s Subversive Voice of Silence 129
Chapter Four
Paradise: Third-wave Feminism—Reshaping Female Subjectivity 147
General Introduction to Third-wave Feminism 149
Demonized Other 156
Battles between Master Narrative and Non-hierarchical Narratives 178
Speaking the Unspeakable 197
Chapter Five
Conclusion 215
Works Cited 229

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