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研究生:翁佳萍
研究生(外文):Chia-ping Weng
論文名稱:女性另類的聲音:多莉絲萊辛《野草在唱歌》,瑪格莉特艾特伍《使女的故事》,和童妮摩里森《天堂》中的批判和剖析
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Alternative Female Voices in Doris Lessing's The Grass Is Singing, Margaret Atwood's The Handmaid's Tale, and Toni Morrison's Paradise
指導教授:張逸帆張逸帆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Yih-fan Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:244
中文關鍵詞:女性主義女性聲音《野草在唱歌》《使女的故事》《天堂》
外文關鍵詞:feminismfemale voicesThe Grass Is SingingThe Handmaid's TaleParadise
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女性長久以來被主敘事形容成無聲的、邊緣化的群體,因而喪失其獨立自主的地位。本文分析三位女性作家的作品,多莉絲萊辛《野草在唱歌》、瑪格莉特艾特伍《使女的故事》和童妮摩里森《天堂》。主要目的是說明女性提供替代版本來反抗男性的統治和操縱。本文藉由女性主義的觀點,來檢視女性的發聲主導了反抗的形成、反霸權記憶的表達和主體的呈現。本文藉由廣泛的文學評論研究和女性主義理論的運用,來達到以上的研究宗旨。首章綜述三部小說的歷史社會背景和三波女性主義的理論評論,以重新評估三位女性作家在女性發聲的領域上的貢獻。之後的章節會分別探討女性的反抗、反霸權記憶的建立和主體的再構。第二章的主題是探討《野草在唱歌》中—50年代南非的社會背景、瑪麗的性別身份和她個人微弱的聲音—來闡述瑪麗如何使用她微弱的聲音表達反抗。第三章討論《使女的故事》,藉由探討歐芙瑞德的流動的身份、語言的破壞和重建及她顛覆沉默的聲音,來表明反霸權記憶的運用,是反抗極權主義的基列可使用的有力武器。第四章主要是分析《天堂》中—女性妖魔化、主敘事和非分層敘述的戰爭以及揭露不可說出的秘密—來解釋重塑女性主體性的重要。從這項研究得出的主要結論是,女性在身份認同發展的過程中,努力發出自己的聲音和發起重大的社會和政治變革。本研究期待要用多元化的面貌來詮釋異化的女性經驗和差異性。
Women have long been regarded as the muted and marginalized group whose inscription is dominated by the master narrative which reduces women to the position of lack and absence. This dissertation examines three texts by women writers, namely Doris Lessing’s The Grass Is Singing, Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale, and Toni Morrison’s Paradise. It aims to illustrate ways in which women provide alternative versions to rebel against masculine domination and manipulation. Employing a feminist perspective, this dissertation scrutinizes the vital role of female articulation in the formation of resistance, counter memories, and subjectivity. The introductory chapter provides historical contexts of the three novels and theoretical reviews on three-wave feminisms in order to re-evaluate the three female writers’ contribution in the field of female articulation. Three aspects of female articulation—resistance, counter memories, and subjectivity—are explored in the following chapters respectively. Chapter Two examines The Grass Is Singing by analyzing the social context in South Africa during the 1950s with a focus on the protagonist Mary’s sexual identities, and how she uses her small personal voice to initiate resistance. Chapter Three reads The Handmaid’s Tale with a specific attention on Offred’s fluid identities, destruction and reconstruction of language, and her subversive voice of silence to affirm the exertion of counter memories as a powerful weapon to rebel against the totalitarian Gilead. Chapter Four discusses Paradise by exploring the concept of demonized other, battles between master narrative and non-hierarchical narratives, and the idea of speaking the unspeakable to explicate the importance of reshaping female subjectivity. To conclude this dissertation reiterates the fact that women are in the process of identity development, striving to make their voices heard and initiating significant social and political changes. Hence, multiple ways to interpret the hybridity of female experiences and differences are expected.
Chapter One
Introduction 1
Motivation 2
Historical Context of the Fictions 4
Theoretical Reviews 8
Thesis Organization 17
Chapter Two
The Grass Is Singing: First-wave Feminism—Resisting Patriarchal Power 19
General Introduction to First-wave Feminism 20
The Colonial Legacy 27
Mary’s Sexual Identities 45
Mary’s Small Personal Voice 60
Chapter Three
The Handmaid’s Tale: Second-wave Feminism—Remembering Counter Memories 75
General Introduction to Second-wave Feminism 76
Offred’s Fluid Identities 86
Destruction and Reconstruction of Language 108
Offred’s Subversive Voice of Silence 129
Chapter Four
Paradise: Third-wave Feminism—Reshaping Female Subjectivity 147
General Introduction to Third-wave Feminism 149
Demonized Other 156
Battles between Master Narrative and Non-hierarchical Narratives 178
Speaking the Unspeakable 197
Chapter Five
Conclusion 215
Works Cited 229

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