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研究生:謝金福
研究生(外文):Chin-Fu Hsieh
論文名稱:郡社群布農語的比較句結構
論文名稱(外文):Comparative Constructions in Isbubukun Bunun
指導教授:魏廷冀魏廷冀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ting-Chi Wei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:台灣文化及語言研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:布農語郡社布農語比較句結構連謂結構
外文關鍵詞:BununIsbubukun Bununcomparative constructionserial verbalization
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本篇研究旨在調查郡社布農語中的比較句句型。根據筆者田野調查資料及文獻,我們提出郡社布農語有以下比較句句型。分別是: ‘-ka’句型,‘-staan’句型 ‘ka-un’句型 ‘ki-an’句型 event comparison 句型以及‘Masi-’句型共計六種。我們採用Leon Stassen(1985)著述的Comparison and Universal Grammar此書中提出的格位指派理論來進行分類;並根據張永利先生(2006)提出的構成連謂動詞四大要件來一一檢視郡社布農語比較句結構呈現的句法特點。茲將我們研究所及,臚列如下:
一、 就布農語而言,此篇為第一篇探討布農語比較句結構的研究。
二、 我們總共整理出六種相關句型。
三、 其中,若是以比較的強度而言‘-ka’這個字在語意上有著些許,比較之意;而另一字彙‘-staan’則是有著超過,更多之語意。
四、 ‘ka-un’句型,必須同時有三個參與者才能成立。
五、 ‘ki-an’句型用來比較身高。
六、 ‘Masi-’句型用來比較年齡。
七、 這六種句型都可以被主題化。
八、 這六種句型的比較動詞比較像謂語而非副詞。
九、 根據格位指派理論,除了‘ki-an’和‘masi-’這兩者,其餘四種句型都可被歸類在超越型的範疇中。
至於‘ki-an’和‘masi-’這兩型的分類問題以及其他相關議題,我們就留
待日後進一步之研究。
This study aims to investigate the comparative constructions in Isbubukun Bunun. Based on our investigations in the field and some texts, we ascertain that there are six different types, to wits, the ‘-ka’ type, the ‘-staan’ type, the ‘ka-…-un’ type, the ‘ki-…-an’ type, the event comparison, and the ‘masi-’ type. The theoretical framework we adopt in the present study is Comparison and Universal Grammar by Leon Stassen (1985). According to Stassen (1985), case assignment plays a substantial part in his model. Meanwhile, we also use criteria brought up by Chang (2006) to examine the comparative constructions in Isbubukun in terms of its syntactic behavior, especially regarding the serial verb construction. As far as our finding is concerned, they can be depicted as follows:
(a) As far as Bunun language is concerned, this is the first study in this regard.
(b) There are six comparative types found in Isbubukun.
(c) Semantically, ‘-ka’ type comparative denotes slightly and the ‘-staan’ comparative type carries grandly in a sense of degree.
(d) The ‘ka-…-un’ comparative type must appear in a structure with three participants.
(e) The ‘ki-…-an’ type has much to do with comparison of height.
(f) ‘Masi-’ type is used to express the comparison of age.
(g) They all can undergo topicalization.
(h) All of them behave more like predicates than adverbials.
(i) Except ‘ki…--an’ type and ‘masi-’ type, the rest four types can be classified as exceed type.
As for the categorization of ‘ki-…-an’ type and ‘masi-’ and related issues, we leave them for tomorrow discussion.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION……………………………………………...6
1.1 Theoretical Approach……………….…........………………………………9
1.2 The Aim of the Thesis………………...…………………………………...13
1.2 The Brief Description of Bunun..……...…………………………………..13
1.3 The Organization of the Thesis..………………………..…………………15


CHAPTER TWO: A SKETCH OF BUNUN’S GRAMMAR……………………16
2.1 Phonetic Inventory.………………………………….…………………......16
2.2 Personal Pronominal system….…………...……………………………....18
2.3 Word Order......……………...……………………………………………..19
2.4 Case Marking System……………………………………………………...21
2.4.1 Nominative…………………………………………………………..22
2.4.2 Oblique………………………………………………………………26
2.4.3 Possessive………………………………………………………...….29
2.4.4 Locative……………………………………………………………...36
2.4.5 Partitive…………………………………………………………...…39
2.4.6 Accusative………………………………………………………...…41
2.5 Voice System……………………...……………………………………….42
2.5.1 Agent Voice………………………………………………………….43
2.5.2 Patient Voice……………………………………………..…………..46
2.5.3 Locative Voice…………………………………………….…………48
2.5.4 Referential Voice……………………………………...……..………50
2.6 Mood and Aspect Systems in Isbubukun…………………………....…….53

CHAPTER THREE: LITEREATURE REVIEW……………………………….56
3.1 Previous Studies on Comparative Construction….…………………….....56
3.1.1 Ultan Russell (1972)………………………………………………...56
3.1.2 Greenberg (1966)……………………………………………...…….57
3.1.3 Lehmann (1972)………………………………………………..……58
3.1.4 Leon Stassen (1985)…………………………………………………60
3.2 Previous Studies on Formosan Languages………………………………...62
3.2.1 He et al. (1987)……………………………………………………....62
3.2.2 Sung (2006, 2007)…………………………………………….……..66

CHAPTER FOUR: THE COMPARATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS IN ISBUBUKUN………………………………………………...73
4.1 AV Form…………………………………………………...……………....73
4.1.1 –ka Type……………………...……………………………………...73
4.1.2 –staan Comparative………………………………………………….81
4.2 NAV Form……………...………………………………………….………84
4.2.1 Ka-un Type………………...………………………………..……….84
4.2.2 Ki-an Type………..………………………………………..………...87
4.3 Event Comparison….……………………………………………...………91
4.3.1 The Basic Pattern……………………………………………..……...91
4.3.2 Some Features of Event Comparison.……..………………..……….94
4.3.2.1 Nominalization………………………………………..…………...94
4.3.2.2 The Distribution of Possessive...……………………….………….96
4.3.2.3 Ellipsis……………………………………………………..………98
4.4 Masi-Comparative…………...……………………………...……………98
4.5 Summary……………………………………………………...………...101
CHAPTER FIVE: THE CLASSIFICATION OF ISBUBUKUN’S
COMPARATIVES……………………………………..……103
5.1 –ka Comparative and –staan Comparatives in Isbubukun………….......103
5.2 Ka-un Type and Ki-an Type…..……………………………….………..105
5.3 Event Comparison.………………………………………………….…..108
5.4 Masi-Ttype in Isbubukun ……..………………………………………. 109
5.5 Serial serbalization………………...………………………………...….112
5.5.1 The Linkerless Condition………………………………………..113
5.5.2 The Same TAM Condition…………………………………….…115
5.5.3 The Subordination Condition……………………………………117
5.5.4 The Lexical Verb condition……………………………………...118
5.5.5 Summary………………………………………………….……..121
5.6 Voice Harmony………………………………………………………….121

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION……………………………………….………..127

LIST OF TABLES
Table ...…………………………………………………………………………. Page
1-1 Subgruoping in Formosan Language ...…….……………………... 0 9
1-2 The Isbubukun Informant Consulted in This Research…………… 10
2-1 Consonants in Isbubukun……………………………………………. 12
2-2 Vowels in Isbubukun …………………………………………………. 12
2-3 Phonemes and Orthography………………………………………… 13
2-4 The Personal pronouns of Isbubukun ……………………………… 14
2-5 The Case Marking System in Isbubukun……………………………. 16
2-6 The Simplified Comparison on Two Cases among Three Bunun
dialects…....................................................................................... 2 9
2-7 The Demonstrative System: This and That…………….................. 30
2-8 The Comparison on Voice System between Philippine Type and
Paiwan…....................................................................................... 3 8
2-9 The Comparison on Voice System between Philippine Type and
Paiwan…....................................................................................... 4 1
2-10 The Comparison on Voice System between Philippine Type and
Paiwan…....................................................................................... 4 3
2-11 The Comparison on Voice System between Philippine Type and
Paiwan…....................................................................................... 4 5
2-12 The Comparison on Voice System between Philippine Type and
Paiwan…....................................................................................... 4 8
2-13 The Mood and Aspect Systems in Isbubukun…………………….. 49
3-1 Lehman’s Table………………………………………………………... 53
3-2 Temperal Chaning…………………………………………………..…. 52
3-3 Modified Version based on Sung…………………………………….. 65
4-1 The Comparative Constructions in Isbubukun……........................ 96

5-1 The Comparative Constructions in Isbubukun……………………… 106
5-2 Serial Verbalization…………………............................................... 115
5-3 Voice Harmony in Comparative Construction in Isbubukun……….. 120
6-1 The Construction in Isbubukun……………..................................... 121
6-2 The Behaviour in Isbubukun’s Comparative Constructions……….. 122

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