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研究生:陳曉依
研究生(外文):Chen, Hsiao-Yi
論文名稱:中文寫字障礙學童之工作記憶能力初探
論文名稱(外文):A preliminary on the working memory abilities of Chinese elementary-school students with words writing difficulties
指導教授:趙文崇趙文崇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chaou, Wun-Tsong
口試委員:童寶娟季麟揚
口試委員(外文):Torng, Pao-ChuanChi, Lin-Yang
口試日期:2012-06-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北護理健康大學
系所名稱:聽語障礙科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:復健醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:寫字障礙工作記憶
外文關鍵詞:writing difficultydyslexiadysgraphiaworking memory
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中文寫字障礙包括讀寫字障礙及單純寫字障礙,為釐清中文寫字障礙學童之本質差異,本研究初探「讀寫字障礙組」、「單純寫字障礙組」及「讀寫正常組」三組學童之工作記憶結構能力表現之差異及特徵。
本研究之研究對象來自南投縣埔里基督教醫院門診及埔里國小,共30名二到六年級受試學童,排除視障、聽障、語障、智障及情緒行為障礙,依據其讀寫能力分為讀寫字障礙組、單純寫字障礙組及讀寫正常組三組,每組皆包括10名受試者,且依性別、智力及年級進行配對。使用10個測驗測試所有受試學童之工作記憶結構功能(包括:音韻字詞形式、字形字詞字詞形式、音韻迴路、字形迴路與中央執行功能),比較其工作記憶結構能力之差異與特徵。此外,依學童之聽寫表現分析中文單純寫字障礙與中文讀寫字障礙之寫錯字特徵。
研究之主要發現為中文讀寫字障礙學童在工作記憶結構每個部分的能力皆顯著低於讀寫正常組。中文單純寫字障礙學童則在字形字詞形式、字形迴路及中央執行功能表現顯著低於讀寫正常組。比較兩組中文寫字障礙學童之差異;發現中文單純寫字障礙在音韻字詞形式、字形字詞形式及音韻迴路的表現顯著優於中文讀寫字障礙者,在字形迴路及中央執行功能表現相當且皆較讀寫正常組弱。總之,單純寫字障礙學童的主要困難可能是WMA運作中之字形編碼缺陷、字形迴路缺陷或中央執行功能缺陷所導致;而讀寫字障礙者可能在音韻字詞形式、字形字詞型式、字形迴路、音韻迴路及中央執行功能皆會出現困難。此外,本研究討論中文讀寫字障礙及中文單純寫字障礙之工作記憶結構特徵及聽寫錯字特徵。最後,提出相關臨床意義及未來研究建議。


Dyslexia and dysgraphia are both included in the writing difficulties in Chinese language. In order to understand the nature of the differences between dyslexia and dysgraphia in Chinese-speaking children, the present study investigates the differences and characteristics of the working memory architecture in three groups of elementary school children: those with dyslexia, those with dysgraphia and those with normal literacy development.
In the present study, the respondents were recruited from outpatient services in Puli Christian Hospital and Puli Elementary School in Nantou country, Taiwan. In total, thirty elementary school students from second to sixth grades were recruited in this study, and the students with visual, auditory, speech-language, emotional/behavioral impairments and/or mental retardation were excluded. The respondents were divided into three groups according to their word reading and writing abilities: dyslexia, dysgraphia and normal. Each group had ten respondents, and each respondent was paired based on the gender, intelligence quotient (IQ) and the grade in the school. The respondents’ working memory architecture abilities (i.e. phonological word forms, orthographic word forms, phonological loop, orthographic loop and central executive function) were assessed using ten tests, and their results were compared in terms of differences and characteristics. The error types of dictation between Chinese dyslexia and dysgraphia were also examined.
The main results of this study suggested that all the working memory architecture abilities of the dyslexic group were significantly poorer than the normal group. The dysgraphic group was significantly poorer than the normal group in orthographic word forms, orthographic loop and central executive function. Comparing the dyslexic group to the dysgraphic group, the latter was significantly better than the former in phonological word forms, orthographic word forms and phonological loop, however their orthographic loop and central executive function were similar. Overall, the main deficits of dysgraphia in the working memory architecture may involve with orthographic word forms, orthographic loop, and central executive functuin. The deficits of dyslexia in the working memory memory architecture may involve with phonological and orthographic word forms, phonological loop, orthographic loop and central executive function.
The present study has discussed the differences in the working memory architecture tests and the error types of dictation between the dyslexic group and the dysgraphic group. The clinical implications and suggestions for the future studies were further discussed.
Key words: writing difficulty, dyslexia, dysgraphia, working memory.


目次
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
圖次 VI
表次 VII
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 寫字能力之認知歷程與發展 4
第二節 寫字障礙 11
第三節 寫字障礙的成因 23
第四節 寫字障礙與工作記憶能力 27
第五節 研究問題 40
第三章 研究方法 41
第一節 研究對象 44
第二節 研究工具 46
第三節 資料統計與分析 53
第四章 研究結果 55
第一節 三組學童之工作記憶結構功能差異 55
第二節 讀寫字障礙組與單純寫字障礙組WMA能力之差異特徵 68
第三節 分析讀寫字障礙組與單純寫字障礙組之寫字錯字特徵差異 72
第五章 研究結論與建議 75
第一節 研究討論與結論 75
第二節 研究限制與建議 89
參考文獻 91


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