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研究生:馬騰嶽
論文名稱:Pono ─當代「夏威夷人」的政治運動、國族主義與認同:法律與文明作為抵抗權力的策略
指導教授:李亦園李亦園引用關係陳中民陳中民引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:人類學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:人類學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:477
中文關鍵詞:夏威夷夏威夷人波里尼西亞土著原住民族裔國族主義公民國族主義政治運動認同
外文關鍵詞:去殖民去佔領族屬當地主義權力法律文明合法性合法律性
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:1369
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:217
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘 要

夏威夷群島是北太平洋最重要的航運中心,關鍵性的戰略地理位置帶給它不 平凡的現代化歷史。夏威夷群島由8個主要島嶼所組成,原有眾多的傳統波里尼西亞土著王國分佈其中。1778年1月,Cook船長在從Society Islands向北美西北海岸航行的路程中,意外的「發現」了夏威夷群島,開始西方世界與夏威夷群島的接觸。1810年Kamehameha一世國王統一夏威夷群島,建立夏威夷王國。1820年美國傳教士進入夏威夷宣教,在極短的時間內讓夏威夷人改信基督宗教。
在歐美西方人的協助下,1840年夏威夷頒布第一部憲法,揚棄傳統的絕對王權,成為君主立憲國家。透過外交努力,1843年夏威夷王國透過「英法聯合公報」得到英國與法國的正式承認,而成為全世界非西方世界第一個民族國家。19世紀中葉起,國際海運的發展與熱帶農場的興起,進一步的將夏威夷推向成經濟發達的現代國家。
1893年在美國的支持下夏威夷王國被白人推翻,1898年美國進一步在與西班牙的戰爭中,以攻打西班牙殖民地菲律賓為名義佔領夏威夷。由於美國從未合法的完成對於夏威夷的兼併(annexation),反抗美國統治的運動延續至今。
本文所指的「夏威夷人」的政治運動,主要包括兩種目的與策略的政治運動。首先是以去殖民(de-colonization)政治運動,其目的爭取土著在政治上的自主或是獨立。它包括強調原住民族的自治權利,要求美國政府承認夏威夷人在美國境內的原住民族地位,建立類同於美國印地安人的保留區政府,來實施自治。或是脫離美國統治,建立以土著為主體的獨立國家。另一目的與策略則是「去佔領」(de-occupation)運動,它主張美國與夏威夷的關係自始為一軍事佔領關係,目的在於終止美國對於夏威夷持續的軍事佔領,回復十九世紀夏威夷王國。此一運動主張夏威夷王國主權依舊在在,僅是政府因美國佔領而時停止。我認為,去殖民運動發展出「族裔國族主義」(ethnic nationalism)認同,運動主體為夏威夷土著(native Hawaiian),人群的認同是基於「血」的連結。而去佔領運動則發展出「公民國族主義」(civic nationalism),運動主體為夏威夷王國臣民,成員不限族裔,彼此間的認同乃基於法律身份。
Pono是夏威夷人的文化核心,由pono所構成的價值體系,是夏威夷人最重要的文化結構。我主張pono是當代夏威夷人政治運動中,行動者對抗權力的主要資源,它是結構與能動性(agency)的交匯點。我認為當代夏威夷人的政治運動,是以pono,即善、正義、正確、道德等為名的政治實踐。唯不同的歷史詮釋,卻讓今日的夏威夷人在認同與政治運動上,呈現出多元與競爭的面貌。不同組織在政治立場與認同上雖有差異,卻都視法律與文明為抵抗西方強權的最佳策略。而這種抵抗的策略,早於夏威夷王國時期,便被夏威夷人所熟悉與應用。
本文是一篇關於當代夏威夷政治運動的人類學研究。我以歷史材料與田野資料呈現夏威夷人自18世紀後期以來,在西方帝國主義威脅下,如何透過對於西方的妥協、學習、模仿,來展現其高度的政治能動性,逐步建立政治與經濟上的自主。夏威夷人的成就,反證了Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein世界體系理論下,亞、非、大洋洲土著,僅能被動的被吸納於西方帝國主義所構築的世界體系的悲觀觀點。
面對帝國主義強權,夏威夷人提供了人類社會一個極為珍有的例子,見證了人類能動性的無限可能。

Abstract


Hawaii is central to the North Pacific. Its crucial strategic location has made it an unusual history during its modernization. The archipelago composes of eight main islands. There were many Polynesian kingdoms on the islands since prehistory. In January 1778, Captain James Cook accidentally came across these islands. This event started the contact between the West and Hawaii. In 1810, King Kamehameha I unified the archipelago and established the Kingdom of Hawaii. In 1820, United States missionaries arrived and converted Hawaiians to Christianity.

Westerners, in 1840 assisted the Hawaiian Kingdom to promulgate its first constitution making the Hawaiian Kingdom a constitutional monarchy abandoning its traditional absolute power. Through diplomatic efforts in 1843, the British and French governments entered into a formal agreement to recognize the Hawaiian Islands with what is called the Anglo-Franco proclamation, which made the “constitutional kingdom the first national state of the non-Western world.”

In 1893, the haole (White) in Hawaii overthrew the kingdom with United States military support. In 1898, the United States occupied Hawaii under the name of attacking the Philippines during the Spanish-American War. Because the United States never followed the legal procedures to annex Hawaii as a new territory, the anti-American ruling movement is lasting till now.

In this dissertation, I argue that there are two models of the Hawaiian political movement, each with different strategies and political objectives. The first is the 'de-colonization' movement. Its goal is to fight for the autonomy or independence for the native population. It emphasizes the indigenous rights for political autonomy, asking the United States government to recognize the native Hawaiians as an indigenous nation of the United States and establish the equivalence of the Indian reservation government for the native Hawaiian autonomy. Some native Hawaiians insist to secede from the United States pursuing the totally independence.

The second is 'de-occupation' - it argues that the United States-Hawaii partnership is a military occupation. Its goal is to terminate the military occupation status and restore the Hawaiian Kingdom government. It argues that the Hawaiian Kingdom sovereignty still exists and only the kingdom government was suspended under United States occupation.

I argue the de-colonization movement was derived from and appears more appropriate for 'the ethnic nationalism', whose subjects are the native Hawaiian. Their identity is based on 'blood' or 'genetic inheritance'. On the other hand I argue the de-occupation movement was derived from and thereby formed 'the civic nationalism', whose subjects are the Hawaiian Kingdom subjects. Their identity is based on their legal status.

Pono is the cultural core of the Hawaiians. Their value system compose by pono is the most important cultural structure of its people. I argue that it is the main resource of the actors who are fighting against the power during the political movement in contemporary times. It is the juxtaposition of the agency and structure.

I argue that the Hawaiian political movement in the modern times is a political practice under the name of pono, which includes the ethic idea of good, justice, correct, morality, etc. Despite the difference of political standing and identities of organizations, law, and culture are treated as the best strategy to counter the Western powers that they were best acquainted with.

This thesis is an anthropological research on the Hawaiian political movement and identities in contemporary. I used historical materials and my own field studies to explore how the Hawaiians showed their highly political agency with compromising, learning and mimicking the West and gradually received their political and economic autonomy.

The Hawaiians have made successful countering devices to the tragic viewpoint of Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein's 'world system' theory – the peoples in Asia, Africa, and the Pacific can only be absorbed into the world system constructed by the Western Imperialists. Facing the power of imperialism, the Hawaiians offer an extremely valuable example providing evidence of the unlimited possibilities of native human agencies.

Key words:
Hawaii, Hawaiian, Polynesia, native, indigenous, ethnic nationalism, civic nationalism, political movement, identity, de-colonization, de-occupation, ethnicity, localism, power, law, civilization, legality, legitimacy

章節目錄

第一章 導論............................................................................ 1
一、 緣起........................................................................................ 1
二、 研究對象簡介:地理、人群與歷史.................................... 6
三、 問題意識................................................................................ 15
四、 理論取徑與關懷.................................................................... 27
五、 田野調查概述........................................................................ 32

第二章 歷史之島:接觸西方與夏威夷王國的建立.............. 34
一、 皇宮、榕樹與檔案館............................................................ 34
二、 歷史與人類學........................................................................ 37
三、 世界體系與現代民族國家.................................................... 41
四、 模仿文明.能動性與國家的建立........................................ 44
五、 「孤獨的屠王者」Kamehameha國王的統一霸業.............. 46
六、 預言者、神廟與Hawaii島的統一....................................... 49
七、 西方勢力的引入與夏威夷群島的統一................................ 51
八、 西方影響的增加與加入大英帝國........................................ 60
九、 夏威夷王國的建立................................................................ 64
十、 Kapu的廢除與改宗基督教................................................... 69
十一、 外交關係的拓展與客死異邦的國王..................................... 72
十二、 西方勢力的競爭..................................................................... 74
十三、 1840年憲法的誔生................................................................ 77
十四、 外交承認與民族國家的建立................................................. 78
十五、 政府改造與三權分立............................................................. 83
十六、 法國入侵與主權危機............................................................. 84
十七、 王權的繼承與憲法的變革..................................................... 86
十八、 外交空間的拓展與波里尼西亞邦聯的建立......................... 89
十九、 結論 ....................................................................................... 92

第三章 美國的擴張與夏威夷王國的結束............................. 95
一、 船運補給─早期國際貿易的開始.......................................... 96
二、 檀香木的交易.......................................................................... 98
三、 熱帶農業的濫殤與Mahele 土地分配與私有化................. 100
四、 熱帶農場發展與外國人口的移入......................................... 106
五、 夏威夷王國與美國互惠條約................................................. 114
六、 Liliuokalani女王與政黨政爭........................................... 127
七、 1893年政變與王國的傾覆.................................................... 135
八、 夏威夷共和國的成立............................................................. 141
九、 美國「兼併」夏威夷............................................................ 150
十、 兼併之爭議............................................................................. 153
十一、 結論.................................................................................... 162

第四章 去殖民與去佔領─反抗美國統治的兩種政治運動.. 170
一、 去殖民vs.去佔領─當代夏威夷政治運動的兩種面貌...... 173
二、 法律與文明作為一種反抗的策略..................................... 176
三、 夏威夷土著的原住民化─Kuhio王子與〈1920年夏威夷人家園法案〉............................................................................. 182
四、 Office of Hawaiian Affairs與1993年〈道歉法案〉................ 195
五、 Rice v. Cayetano 公民權利平等與土著權益保障的衝突... 201
六、 Ka Lahui Hawaii夏威夷土著「國家」................................. 203
七、 Akaka法案.............................................................................. 209
八、 族裔國族主義下的另種選擇 ─ 建立獨立國家.................. 230
T九、 夏威夷人合法政府(Lawful Hawaiian Government)............. 239
十、 回到真實世界─ 一場博士論文答辯帶來的「去佔領」革命............................................................................................ 248
十一、 超級震撼彈─ 是土著還是原住民........................................ 266
十二、 聖戰開打─救世主與帝國的法律戰爭.................................. 274
十三、 結論─法律與文明作為一種抵抗的策略.............................. 282

第五章 「族裔國族主義」與「公民國族主義」認同競爭.. 288
一、 國族主義與國家..................................................................... 288
二、 族裔國族主義......................................................................... 300
三、 土著、血與Kamehameha學校................................................ 304
四、 女王與國族之血..................................................................... 316
五、 公民國族主義與其運動............................................................ 334
六、 Ku`e 抗議書、族裔國族主義與公民國族主義的競爭......... 336
七、 女王的女人們......................................................................... 347
八、 祖先的名字............................................................................. 353
九、 國家認同與族裔認同............................................................. 365

第六章 族屬、認同與當地..................................................... 371
一、 親屬、族群與族屬......................................................... 377
二、 家與族─同家不同族....................................................... 386
三、 誰是夏威夷人?族裔認同、國族認同、文化認同與當地認同.............................................................................. 399

四、 「當地人」(Local)─多元文化與跨族裔認同的形成.......... 408
五、 T族群正義與認同的兩難 ─ 對墾民殖民主義「當地人」的批判.............................................................................. 413
六、 Aloha to everyone and Aloha Aina ......................................... 430

第七章 結論............................................................................. 436

圖表說明................................................................................................... 452
圖片說明................................................................................................... 453
參考書目................................................................................................... 455




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