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研究生:陳汝伶
研究生(外文):Chen, Ju Ling
論文名稱:核能電廠控制室觸控螢幕反光現象改善研究
論文名稱(外文):Improvement of lighting quality in advanced main control rooms
指導教授:黃雪玲黃雪玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwang, Sheue Ling
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:工業工程與工程管理學系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:核電廠眩光觸控螢幕光學原理視覺疲勞
外文關鍵詞:Nuclear Power PlantGlareTouch screenPrinciples of opticsVisual fatigue
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摘要
核能電廠主控制室的儀控系統使用先進具有觸控功能的顯示器(Video Display Unit,VDU)為主要的人機介面,其提供運轉人員更多高度整合的資訊並可讓運轉員直接在螢幕上監視設備狀態及操控設備。為了提升運轉人員工作的效能,核電廠主控制室依據美國核管會(Nuclear Regulatory Commission,NRC)的照明設計規則(如:NUREG-0700, 2002),將主控制室各作業區域及螢幕的照明保持應有的照度水準。但因光線照射在觸控面板而造成的眩光及反射光,直接影響運轉員判讀其中重要資訊之速度及正確性,若運轉員對數位儀控設備上呈現的訊息有漏失或誤判時,即有可能發生遺漏失誤(Error of Omission)或動作失誤(Error of Commission),對於核能營運的安全影響甚鉅。
因此本研究之目的是針對現行核電廠主控制室的眩光問題進行燈具環境配置改善。首先,進行核電廠現場訪談以了解目前螢幕反光及眩光對運轉員所造成的影響;其次,在現行的主控制室光源環境下,於操作螢幕上貼附霧亮膜及受測者配戴偏光眼鏡進行實驗,研究應變項包含操作效率、眩光程度、視覺疲勞程度及主觀評估;接著對現行核電廠主控制室的燈具配置進行光線路徑模擬,試圖找出符合NRC規範的主控制室照度水準與最佳光源配置環境及角度,根據光線路徑模擬結果所提出的較佳燈具位置配置進行核電廠主控制室驗證實驗。最後前往核電廠主控試模擬中心進行實地實驗,以驗證出最佳的改善眩光策略。
研究結果顯示,在進行核電廠主控制室眩光問題的環境配置改善上,以現行的主控制室光源環境,請受測者操作螢幕上貼附霧亮膜的儀控系統,環境光源造成的眩光照度及受測者的視覺疲勞程度皆有明顯的改善。在模擬主控制室燈具配置環境的改善上,大型顯示看板(Wide Display Panel,WDP)及主操控台(Main Control Console,MCC)兩區域在進行運轉作業時因受到環境光源的影響,而造成操作時產生偏移動作以及在環境光源造成眩光照度、眩光面積、操作錯誤次數及主觀評估皆有顯著的改善,而在值班主任台(Shift Supervisor Console,SSC)區域內受測者的偏移距離、眩光照度、眩光面積及主觀問卷具顯著的改善效果。因此,經由研究之結果,提出現行核電廠控制室眩光及燈具光源環境改善之對策,以達到主控制室運轉之安全。

Abstract
The advanced main control room (MCR) in the nuclear power plant widely used digital image displays on video display unit (VDU) as mainly human-computer interface that provides operators highly integrated information to monitor and control system states directly on the screen. Although the illumination level in each workstation and control screen is based on the lighting design guidelines NUREG-0700 of American Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the glare caused by reflected light still exist in the current MCR. The glare may affect the speed and accuracy of operators to read the important information on the screen, and that probably causes error, and may lead to a severe accident in the nuclear power plant.
The purpose of this research is to solve the glare problems by changing lighting environment configuration in nuclear power plant. Firstly, we interviewed the operators in order to understand current screen reflection and glare impact on operators. Then, we conducted an experiment and developed two strategies, 1) attaching capacitive touch screen films to touch screen, and 2) subjects wearing polarized glasses in current nuclear power plant’s lighting configuration environment. The dependent variables in this experiment included efficiency of operating, glare degree, visual fatigue and subjective evaluation. Additionally, we simulated light paths in the current MCR to find out the illumination level and the best lighting configuration based on principles of optics (θi = θr), and then verified the effect by an experiment.
The results showed that glare degree, glare area, head shift, operating errors and subjective evaluation were significantly different between the current MCR and the simulated lighting configuration environment in two regions of Wide Display Panel (WDP) and Main Control Console (MCC), and glare degree, glare area, head shift and subjective evaluation were significantly different between the current MCR and the simulated lighting configuration environment in Shift Supervisor Console (SSC) region. Therefore, in order to achieve the safety of operation, the improvements of the nuclear power plant control room lighting configuration environment are proposed from the results of this study.

Contents
摘要 I
Abstract III
Contents V
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Motivation 1
1.3 Objectives 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 3
2.1 Touch panel 3
2.1.1 Touch Panel Using Issues 3
2.1.2 Viewing Angle 4
2.2 Glare 5
2.2.1 Types of glare 5
2.2.2 Reduction of Glare 6
2.3 Main Control Room Lighting Issues 7
2.3.1 Illumination 7
2.3.2 Workstation design 8
2.4 Visual Fatigue Measurement 11
2.4.1 Critical Fusion Frequency (CFF) 12
2.4.2 Visual Acuity 12
2.4.3 Subjective Visual Fatigue 12
2.5 Mental Workload 13
Chapter 3 Research Method 16
3.1 Research framework 16
3.2 Main Control Room in Lungmen Nuclear Power Plant 17
3.3 Pilot test I 19
3.3.1 Experiment design 19
3.3.2 The results of pilot test I 20
3.4 Pilot test II 21
3.4.1 Experiment design 21
3.4.2 The results of pilot test II 23
3.5 Experiment I 24
3.5.1 Experimental pictures 24
3.5.2 Experimental design 24
3.5.3 Participants and experimental apparatus 27
3.5.4 Experimental environment 27
3.5.5 Experimental procedures 28
3.6 Experiment II 30
3.6.1 Experimental design 30
3.6.2 Participants and experimental apparatus 33
3.6.3 Experimental environment 34
3.6.4 Experimental procedures 35
3.7 Field experiment in Lungmen nuclear power plant 37
3.7.1 Experimental design 37
3.7.2 Participants & Experiment environment 38
3.7.4 Experimental procedures 38
Chapter 4 Results 40
4.1 The results of Experiment I 40
4.1.1 Efficiency of operating 40
4.1.2 Glare degree 41
4.1.3 Visual fatigue 42
4.1.4 Subjective evaluation 42
4.2 The results of Experiment II 43
4.2.1 Wide Display Panel (WDP) 43
4.2.2 Main Control Console (MCC) 46
4.2.3 Shift Supervisor Console (SSC) 49
4.3 The results of experiment in Lungmen nuclear power plant 52
4.3.1 ANOVA 52
4.3.2 Comparison of four different conditions 53
Chapter 5 Discussion 55
5.1 The effects of two strategies in current environment 55
5.2 The effects of improved lighting configuration environment 56
5.2.1 Efficiency of operating 57
5.2.2 Glare degree 58
5.2.3 Visual fatigue 58
5.2.4 Subjective evaluation 59
5.2.5 Suggestions of lighting configuration in MCR 59
5.3 Study Limitations 61
Chapter 6 Conclusion and future work 63
6.1 Conclusion 63
6.2 Future Work 64
Reference 65
Appendix A-Informed Consent Form 71
Appendix B-Operation Procedures in Experiment 72
Appendix C-NASA TLX 75
Appendix D-Subjective Visual Fatigue Evaluation 77
Appendix E-Subjective Evaluation Questionnaire 78
Appendix F-Glare on the screens in main control room 79

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