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研究生:曾楓億
研究生(外文):Tseng, Feng-Yi
論文名稱:通用作戰符號介面之人員績效評估
論文名稱(外文):Assessment on the Human Performance for the Use of Common Warfighting Symbology Interface
指導教授:黃雪玲黃雪玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hwang, Sheue-Ling
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:工業工程與工程管理學系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:人員色彩辨識視覺搜尋績效眼球追蹤地理情報系統膚電反應
外文關鍵詞:human color discriminationvisual search performanceeye trackinggeographical intelligence systemgalvanic skin response
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伴隨著電腦科技進步,人們依賴電腦執行與工作相關的作業已經越來越廣泛了,其中在國防工業中的軍事調度之電腦應用成長迅速(例如:軍用之雷達系統與地理情報系統)。在戰情室裡,作業人員必須在極短的時間內進行資料分析、評估與決策,而且每個決定都有可能攸關戰場士兵的生死存亡,因此人員的作業績效是可能受到時間與壓力負荷所影響,導致系統介面設計的好壞,對於降低人員工作負荷與預防安全相關的意外,形成一個極重要的因素。
本研究由三個實驗所組成,主要係調查通用作戰符號應用之人機介面設計對人員績效與認知負荷之影響。其中第一個實驗是調查作業人員在視覺終端機上的色彩辨識能力,該能力可能會受到燈光顏色、環境照度與螢幕顯示之背景色所影響。本實驗採用2 × 3 × 3受測者內之全因子實驗設計,自變數為三種燈光顏色(紅光、藍光與白光)、兩種環境照度(50 lux與300 lux)與三種螢幕背景色(黑色、藍色與褐色)。因變數為色彩辨識能力(用Munsell Hue test的誤差分數量化呈現)、完成時間與受測者主觀偏好。結果顯示燈光顏色與螢幕背景色都顯著的影響人員色彩辨識能力(p < 0.01)。該研究結果可以被使用在戰情室中燈光顏色與螢幕背景顏色之設計使用。
第二個實驗內容主要是調查作業人員在視覺終端機上的通用作戰符號視覺搜尋績效。過去研究指出,視覺搜尋績效可能受到目標大小、背景型態與螢幕尺寸影響,尤其當作業人員在戰情室中執行搜尋作業並且有時間壓力時,視覺搜尋績效變的更為重要。本研究共邀請三十六位受測者參與實驗,並採用三因子混合實驗設計,其中自變數為三種螢幕尺寸(7, 15 與 21 英吋,各有三分之一的受測者隨機分配至一種螢幕尺寸進行實驗),五種圖像尺寸(40, 50, 60, 70與80弧分)與兩種背景形態(有地形與無地形)。螢幕尺寸是受測者間因子,圖像尺寸與背景形態是受測者內因子。因變數為完成時間、正確率、凝視時間、凝視次數與跳視幅度。實驗結果顯示最佳的圖像尺寸80至70弧分,在搜尋作業,21英吋螢幕被選為最佳的螢幕大小,而無地形的背景形態相較於有地形正確率較高。該研究結果可以用來提升戰情室作業人員的視覺搜尋績效,並可應用在戰情室的設計上。
第三個實驗係延伸實驗一與實驗二至地理情報系統中,該研究的目標係藉由膚電反應及瞳孔大小之生理反應量測,用以調查模擬之地理情報系統對於作業人員認知負荷之影響。本研究檢驗地理情報系統之圖像形態(實心與空心)、圖像尺寸(40,60與80弧分)與地圖背景形態(有地形與無地形)對於作業人員之影響,並藉由實驗引領去探索人員在視覺過程中的負荷。結果顯示受測者於目標與背景對比較為明顯時,其認知負荷較低,並且當搜尋空心圖像於無地形顯示的地圖時,搜尋效率較佳。本研究結果可以提供設計者發展更有效率與舒適之介面,以符合使用者需求與給予之設計推薦。

Human reliance on computers to execute job-related tasks has increased immensely with advances in computer technology. One application of computers that is growing rapidly is performing military maneuvers in defense industries such as radar systems or geographical intelligence systems. In a military information station, operators have to carry out data analysis, assessment, and decision-making in a short time. Each decision which may be decided in milliseconds is a matter of life and death for soldiers. Therefore, the operators’ task performance is affected by stress and time load. This makes the interface of the systems to be one of the most important factors for reducing the human’s cognitive load of preventing safety-related accidents.
This study conducted three experiments to investigate the common warfighting symbology interface design on human performance and cognitive load. The first experiment investigated the human performance on color discrimination in visual display terminals. It may be affected by illuminant colors, the level of ambient illumination and background colors of the monitor. A complete factorial (2 × 3 × 3) within-subject design was used. The independent variables were three illuminant colors (red, blue, and white), two ambient illumination levels (50 lux and 300 lux), and three background colors (black, blue and brown); the three dependent variables were the color discrimination ability (error scores), completion time and subject preference. The results showed that the illuminant colors and the screen background colors both significantly influenced human color discrimination ability (p < 0.01). The result of this research can be used in control room design when considering the effect of color.
The second experiment investigated the visual search performance in visual display terminals. Visual search performance may be affected by target size, background type and the dimensions of the screen. Especially, when there is time pressure for operators to execute the search task in a military information station, visual search performance becomes more important. Thirty-six participants were recruited and a three-factor mixed design was used in which the independent variables were three screen dimensions (7, 15 and 21 inches), five icon sizes (visual angle 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 min of arc) and two map background clutter types (topography displayed [TD] and topography not displayed [TND]). The five dependent variables were completion time, accuracy, fixation duration, fixation count and saccade amplitude. The results showed that the best icon sizes were 80 and 70 min. The 21 inches screen dimension was chosen as the superior screen for search tasks. The TND map background produced higher accuracy compared to that of TD background. The results of this research can be used in control room design to promote operators’ visual search performance.
The third experiment extended the first and the second experiments to a simulated geographical intelligence system. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of a simulated geographical intelligence system on operators’ cognitive load by galvanic skin response (GSR) and pupil diameter measures. The experiment was to examine the influence of operators on icon types (hollow and filled), icon sizes (visual angle 40, 60, and 80 min of arc) and map background clutters (TD and TND) in the geographical intelligence system (GIS). The results showed that operators’ cognitive load was lower under higher target/background difference. The search efficiency was well when hollow icons were presented on TND map background. The findings of this study can help the designers to develop more efficient and comfortable interfaces to fit users. Finally, some design specifications were recommended.

中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
List of Figures VIII
List of Tables IX
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and motivation 1
1.2 Objective 5
1.3 Research Structure 6
Chapter 2 Literature Reviews 7
2.1 Relevant research on human color discrimination 7
2.1.1 Different levels of illumination and colors of illuminant 7
2.1.2 Screen background colors 7
2.2 Relevant research on human visual search task 8
2.2.1 A new approach to visual search assessment 8
2.2.2 The measurement of visual search indices 9
2.2.3 Potential factors that influence efficiency of visual search 10
2.2.3.1. Screen dimension 11
2.2.3.2 Icon size 12
2.2.3.3 Map background clutter 13
2.3 Development of the physiological measure 14
Chapter 3 Assessment of Human Color Discrimination for Visual Display Terminal Workers 17
3.1 Method 17
3.1.1 Participants 17
3.1.2 Apparatus 18
3.1.3 Experimental design 19
3.1.4 Experimental task and procedure 22
3.2 Results 24
3.2.1 Error scores 25
3.2.2 Completion time 27
3.2.3 Subjective preference 28
3.3 Discussion 30
3.3.1 Illuminant colors 30
3.3.2 Ambient illumination 31
3.3.3 Screen background colors 32
Chapter 4 Effects of Display Modality on Critical Battlefield E-Map Search Performance 33
4.1 Method 33
4.1.1 Participants 33
4.1.2 Apparatus 34
4.1.3 Experimental design 35
4.1.4 Experimental workplace conditions 35
4.1.5 Stimuli 36
4.1.6 Procedure 40
4.2 Results 40
4.2.1 Completion time 44
4.2.2 Accuracy 45
4.2.3 Fixation duration 47
4.2.4 Fixation count 48
4.2.5 Saccade amplitude 49
4.3 Discussion 51
4.3.1 Effects of screen dimension and icon size 51
4.3.1.1 Search time type 51
4.3.1.2 Accurate type 52
4.3.2 Assessment of the optimum screen dimension in the control room 53
4.3.3 Effect of map background clutter 54
Chapter 5 An Ergonomics Case Study: Mental Workload Assessment of Military Geographical Intelligence System 56
5.1 Method 56
5.1.1 Participants 56
5.1.2 Apparatus 57
5.1.3 Experimental design 58
5.1.4 Experimental protocol 59
5.1.5 Stimuli 59
5.1.6 Procedure 62
5.2 Result 63
5.2.1 Completion time 63
5.2.2 Accuracy 64
5.2.3 GSR 66
5.2.4 Pupil diameter 67
5.3 Discussion 68
Chapter 6 Conclusions 71
6.1 Color discrimination 71
6.2 Display modality on E-map search performance 71
6.3 Display elements on information retrieval in geographical intelligence system 72
6.4 Future works 73
References 75

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