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研究生:丁子鈺
研究生(外文):Ting, Tzu-Yu
論文名稱:根基於可乾、濕式製作磷光綠光染料且具有效率滾升特性之有機發光二極體
論文名稱(外文):A Wet- and Dry- Processable Phosphorescent Green Dye Based Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Roll-up Efficiency
指導教授:周卓煇
指導教授(外文):Jou, Jwo-Huei
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:材料科學工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:綠磷光染料效率滾升
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本研究發表一可乾式及濕式製作之新穎綠磷光材料bis[5-methyl-8-trifluoromethyl-5H-benzo(c)(1,5)naphthyridin-6-one]iridium(picolinate) (3-CF3BNO) ,其材料特性有著短激態生命期 (0.39 μs) 及相對高量子產率 (74%) ,其利用濕式製程所製備之綠光Organic light-emitting diode (OLED),其搭配主體材料3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl) tetraphenylsilane (SimCP2) 當亮度在100 cd/m2下時為52 lm/W 外部量子產率為18%,而亮度在1000 cd/m2下為61 lm/W外部量子產率為23%,此元件能量效率隨著亮度提高而有能量效率上升的現象產生,且此元件顯著的高效率同時也是綠光元件在濕式製程中的能量效率世界記錄;而3-CF3BNO在乾式製程所製備之綠光OLED其搭配主體材料CBP,當亮度在1000 cd/m2下為59 lm/W,而使用習知的綠磷光染料tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium(III) [Ir(ppy)3]搭配相同元件結構,在1000 cd/m2下為25 lm/W。這些結果證明使用此綠磷光染料3-CF3BNO,不管元件是乾式製程或者是濕式製程製作,利用適當的元件結構和傳輸層材料搭配皆具有製備出高效率OLED元件的潛力 。

We demonstrate in this report a novel wet- and dry-process feasible green bis[5-methyl-8-trifluoromethyl-5H-benzo(c)(1,5)naphthyridin-6- one]iridium(picolinate) (3-CF3BNO) containing Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) device with an efficacy roll-up character. The newly synthesized iridium complex exhibits a relatively short excited-state lifetime (0.39 μs) and a high quantum yield of 74%, both which warrant this complex to be a highly electroluminescence active candidate as long as a proper device structure is coupled.
The wet processed device using a 3,5-di(9H-carbazol-9-yl) tetraphenylsilane (SimCP2) host, for example, shows a 52 lm/W with an 18% external quantum efficiency (EQE) at 100 cd/m2, which increases to 61 lm/W with a 23% EQE at 1,000 cd/m2, the highest among all reported wet-processed green OLEDs. Based on the same device structure, the green tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) containing counterpart exhibits only a 12 lm/W with a 6% EQE at 1,000 cd/m2. For the dry-processed device using a 4,4-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP) host, it is 59 lm/W with a 25% EQE at 1,000 cd/m2, while the counterpart of the green Ir(ppy)3 exhibits only 25 lm/W with a 5% EQE. These comparisons also demonstrate this green 3-CF3BNO emitter to possess a potential to yield an even higher device efficacy provided more appropriate hosting, co-hosting, carrier transporting, and/or carrier confining materials are employed.

目錄
獻................................................................................................................I
摘要...........................................................................................................II
英文摘要..................................................................................................III
致謝..........................................................................................................IV
目錄.........................................................................................................VII
表目錄......................................................................................................XI
圖目錄.....................................................................................................XII
壹、 緒論..................................................................................................1
貳、 文獻回顧..........................................................................................4
2-1 有機發光二極體的歷史發展........................................................4
2-2 發光原理......................................................................................13
2-2-1 能量轉移機制...................................................................14
2-2-1-1 Forster能量轉移.......................................................15
2-2-1-2 Dexter能量轉移.......................................................16
2-2-2 OLED的驅動電流............................................................17
2-2-2-1注入限制電流 (Injection-Limited Current).............17
2-2-2-2空間電荷限制電流 (SCL Current).........................19
2-2-3電荷驟熄區 (quenching site) ............................................22
2-2-4元件效率............................................................................23
2-2-5 光色定義...........................................................................25

2-3 OLED所使用之有機材料..........................................................27
2-3-1 有機發光材料.................................................................27
2-3-2 電洞傳輸層材料.............................................................28
2-3-3 電子傳輸層材料.............................................................29
2-3-4 電子注入材料...................................................................29
2-3-5 電極材料...........................................................................30
2-4高效率OLED元件之發展.......................................................31
2-4-1 磷光發光材料開發...........................................................31
2-4-2不同製程之高效率綠磷光元件........................................32
2-4-2-1乾式製程...................................................................33
2-4-2-2 濕式製程..................................................................34
參、 實驗方法........................................................................................37
3-1 材料..............................................................................................37
3-1-2 3-CF3BNO之合成.............................................................40
3-1-3量子產率 (quantum yield) 之量測................................42
3-1-4 激態生命期 (excited-state lifetime) 之量測..................42
3-1-5 光致發光光譜 (Photoluminescent spectrum, PL spectrum)之量測..............................................................................43
3-1-6 紫外光吸收光譜 (ultraviolet visible absorption, UV-Vis absorption) 之量測..........................................................43
3-1-7 熱重分析(Thermogravimetry Analysis,TGA) 之量測......................................................................................43
3-2 元件設計及製備..........................................................................44
3-2-1 元件之製作流程及電路設計...........................................44
3-2-2 基材清洗...........................................................................46
3-2-3 主體與發光染料溶液之配製...........................................46
3-2-4 旋轉塗佈...........................................................................47
3-2-5 蒸鍍源之製備...................................................................47
3-2-6 蒸鍍裝置...........................................................................48
3-2-7 有機層的製備...................................................................49
3-2-8負電極的製備...................................................................49
3-2-9 蒸鍍速率之測定與校正...................................................49
3-3 元件電流、電壓亮度與演色特性量測.......................................50
3-3-1 發光效率之計算...............................................................51
3-3-2電致發光光譜 (Electroluminescent spectrum,EL spectra) 之量測.........................................................................................52
肆、 結果與討論....................................................................................53
4-1 新穎綠磷光材料之物理性質......................................................53
4-2高效率綠光元件製備..................................................................54
4-2-1綠磷光染料3-CF3BNO濃度調控下對元件效率影響……………………….…………..……………………...55
4-2-2高效率綠光元件發光層厚度改變對元件效率影響.........................................................................................58
4-3不同主體對綠磷光染料3-CF3BNO之影響...........................61
4-3-1探討能階結構對綠光元件效率影響........................62
4-3-2探討主客體能量轉換與極性對高效率綠光元件的影響.........................................................................................64
4-3-3不同主體綠光元件乾式比較....................................66
4-4不同的綠光元件比較...................................................................68
4-4-1不同的綠光元件濕式製作比較.................................68
4-4-2不同的綠光元件乾式製作比較.................................69
伍、 結論................................................................................................72
陸、 參考文獻........................................................................................73

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