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研究生:余政倫
研究生(外文):Yu, Cheng-Lun
論文名稱:魚類胸鰭張開與收合游動模式之流體動力學研究
論文名稱(外文):Hydrodynamics of Fish Swimming with Pectoral Fins Abducted and Adducted
指導教授:葉孟考葉孟考引用關係楊鏡堂楊鏡堂引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeh, Meng-KaoYang, Jing-Tang
口試委員:許文翰楊照彥宋齊有陳慶耀葉孟考楊鏡堂牛仰堯
口試日期:2012-1-6
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:滑動數史卓荷數計算流體動力學鰺魚式魚類擬穩態游動起始渦漩流體動力學游動能耗機動能力胸鰭渦漩渦漩能量回收節能機制游動魚類低壓核心操控式游動
外文關鍵詞:slip numberStrouhal numbersComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)carangiform fishquasi-steady swimmingproto vortexhydrodynamicsswimming powermaneuvering capabilitypectoral-fin vorticesvortex-energy recyclingenergy-saving mechanismswimming fishlow-pressure kernelmaneuvering swimming
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本論文分別使用三維與二維的數值模擬來研究鰺魚式魚類胸鰭張開與收合游動模式的流體動力學。數值結果表明魚類胸鰭張開游動於史卓荷數 (St) 0.1–0.8,胸鰭後方會形成一對胸鰭渦漩,胸鰭渦漩與身軀側向擺動之間存在交互作用機制;當St = 0.2–0.8時,身軀側向擺動造成的局部高壓會抑制胸鰭渦漩的剝離,致使胸鰭渦漩留滯且緊貼於胸鰭後方;相反地,當St = 0.1,胸鰭渦漩會剝離並往下游移動,其相應之渦漩的低壓吸力可以輔助身軀側向擺動,以減少游動能耗,此為魚類重要的游動節能機制,因為魚類回收了胸鰭渦漩的能量。
本論文提出魚類胸鰭張開游動與魚類游動於上游D形擋體後方之流體動力學的類比,透過比對魚類使用胸鰭渦漩與上游D形擋體所產生之卡門渦漩的節能機制,結果說明節能機制雖然會以不同形式呈現於大自然中,但是魚類運用渦漩來減少自身游動能耗的概念卻是一樣。
魚類胸鰭收合游動於滑動數(slip) 0.409–0.732,身軀側向擺動引起的起始渦漩會在尾端形成一個貼附的低壓核心,低壓核心可以牽動尾部側向移動,以降低游動能耗;相對地,卻也會增加形狀阻力而不利於游動;當slip = 0.409時,魚類克服阻力游動所花費的能耗,會大於低壓核心輔助身軀側向擺動所減少的能耗。因此,游動能耗還是維持上升,但是此刻的魚類卻可以擁有較佳的機動能力來執行縱向與側向的操控式游動,這點說明魚類游動的能耗與機動能力之間存在一個折衷關係。
魚類在胸鰭收合的直游模式中,數值結果表明於一個身軀側向擺動的週期內,魚類可以擁有四次執行縱向操控式游動的最佳時機,分別為兩次直線加速與兩次直線減速;對照之下,魚類執行側向操控式游動的最佳時機卻只有兩次,分別為一次向右轉彎以及一次向左轉彎。本論文的研究結果對於仿生水下載具於游動節能與機動性能方面,將可以提供一個重要且實用的學理基礎。
In this thesis, the hydrodynamics of a carangiform fish swimming with the pectoral fins abducted and adducted were investigated with three- and two- dimensional simulations, respectively. For Strouhal numbers in a range 0.1–0.8, the numerical results reveal a pair of pectoral-fin vortices is formed behind the abducted pectoral fins of a swimming fish. There exist hydrodynamic interactions between the pectoral-fin vortices and the undulating fish body. For Strouhal numbers in a range 0.2–0.8, the undulating fish body produces a locally high pressure in the region downstream of the pectoral-fin vortices. This downstream high-pressure region adversely suppresses the detachment of pectoral-fin vortices, resulting in vortices closely attached behind the abducted pectoral fins. In contrast, for Strouhal number = 0.1, the pectoral-fin vortices are shed from the pectoral fins and drift downstream. The low-pressure suction force arising from the shed pectoral-fin vortices facilitate lateral movements of the fish body, decreasing the power consumption. We regard this mechanism as significant to harvest energy from the shed pectoral-fin vortices.
We also propose a biohydrodynamic analogy between a fish swimming with the pectoral fins abducted and a fish swimming behind an upstream D-shaped obstacle. Through examination of the energy-saving mechanism pertaining to pectoral-fin vortices and that pertaining to a Kármán vortex street shed by an upstream D-shaped obstacle, we found that, as long as there exist environmental vortices, a fish can readily initiate energy-saving actions. Although the manners of operation of these energy-saving actions vary, the exploitation of environmental vortices is common in fish.
For slip numbers in a range 0.409–0.732, the proto vortex caused by the undulating fish body produces a low-pressure kernel attached to the tail. The low-pressure kernel is beneficial for the decreased energy expenditure because of facilitating the lateral movement of a fish body but still unfavorable in terms of the forward movement of a fish due to an increased form drag. For slip number = 0.409, the enlargement of the energy expenditure to maintain the quasi-steady swimming of a fish is greater than the decrease of the energy expenditure provided by low-pressure kernel, leading to a net increased energy expenditure of a fish. Although a decreased slip number results in an increased energy expenditure of a swimming fish, the maneuvering capability to execute longitudinal and lateral maneuvers is enhanced. This condition indicates that there exists a hydrodynamic compromise between the energy expenditure and maneuvering capability of a swimming fish.
A timing of a fish swimming with the pectoral fins adducted to execute maneuvers from a straight-line swimming state is investigated numerically. In one undulation cycle of the fish, the numerical results reveal there are four time instants preferable for a fish to execute the longitudinal maneuvers–two for the linear acceleration and two for the linear deceleration, whereas only two time instants for the sideway maneuvers–one for turning right and one for turning left.
The energy-saving mechanism and maneuvering capability revealed in this thesis provide a useful biomechanical foundation for the design of future biomimetic vehicles with a view to diminish power consumption and execute maneuver.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 vi
目錄 vii
圖表目錄 x
符號說明 xiii
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1 魚類游動之基本原理 4
2-1.1 魚類之生理構造 4
2-1.2 魚類之推進模式 5
2-1.3 游動之無因次參數 7
2-1.4 推進力之產生機制 10
2-1.5 操控式游動之定義 11
2-2 魚類游動之性能分析 12
2-2.1 無黏性流體理論 12
2-2.2 粒子影像測速儀 13
2-2.3 計算流體動力學 15
2-3 魚類游動之節能機制 17
2-3.1 魚類群游 17
2-3.2 卡門步態 19
2-3.3 魚鰭渦漩 20
2-4 本論文研究之動機、內容與目的 21
第三章 研究方法 24
3-1 物理模型 24
3-2 運動模式 25
3-2.1 運動方程式 25
3-2.2 動態格點法 28
3-3 統御方程式 30
3-3.1 模型假設 30
3-3.2 Navier-Stokes方程式 30
3-3.3 邊界條件設定 31
3-4 數值方法 33
3-4.1 統御方程式離散 33
3-4.2 流場數值演算法 34
3-4.3 代數方程組解法 40
3-5 模擬參數設定 42
3-6 性能係數定義 45
3-7 計算程序驗證 47
第四章 胸鰭渦漩與身軀擺動之流場交互作用 49
4-1 胸鰭張開游動之側向力分析 49
4-2 胸鰭渦漩之剝離機制 50
4-3 胸鰭張開游動之阻力分析 56
4-4 胸鰭渦漩之節能機制 59
4-5 節能機制之流體動力學類比 63
第五章 滑動數對於魚類游動之推進性能的影響 65
5-1 胸鰭收合游動之淨流場 65
5-2 起始渦漩之週期演變 67
5-3 低壓核心之節能機制 71
5-4 胸鰭收合游動之阻力分析 75
5-5 胸鰭收合游動之能耗分析 78
第六章 滑動數對於魚類游動之機動能力的影響 80
6-1 魚類執行操控式游動之最佳時機 80
6-2 魚類執行操控式游動之機動能力 82
第七章 結論與未來展望 86
7-1 結論 86
7-2 未來展望 88
第八章 參考文獻 90
作者簡歷 114
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