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研究生:姜懿娟
研究生(外文):Jiang, Yijuan
論文名稱:卡社布農語語法概略
論文名稱(外文):A Sketch Grammar of Takibakha Bunun
指導教授:廖秀娟廖秀娟引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liao, Hsiu-chuan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:布農語卡社語法
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本論文旨在探討布農語北部方言中的卡社布農語的一些音韻、詞彙與句法現象。
本研究發現,卡社布農語共有十六個輔音與五個元音音位(/i, e, a, o, u/),而非像先前的研究所述的僅有三個元音。
在詞彙方面,本文分別探討了數詞與時間表達詞彙兩項議題。根據Rubino(2000)對於Ilocano數詞的分析,本文亦將卡社布農語的數詞分為七項:cardinal、indefinite、limitative、multiplicative、fractional、distributive以及ordinal。在時間表達詞彙方面,本文將其分為specific time expressions和deictic expressions。
在卡社布農語的句法方面,本文討論了結構標記(包括格位標記、人稱代名詞、指示標記及連繫詞)、基本的語法特徵(包括語序、名詞句與動詞句結構,特別是焦點系統、時貌與情態)以及四種卡社布農語句型結構(包括狀語句、交互句、疑問句與否定句)。在句法方面,本文共有以下三項發現。第一,本文發現卡社布農語共有兩個格位標記,分別為標示主格的(C)a和斜格的(C)i。其次,本文發現第三人稱代名詞的形式和表現與指示代名詞近乎一致,但卻與第一人稱和第二人稱較不相似。最後,本文發現卡社布農語總共有五個焦點標記,而非四個。第五個焦點標記為受惠者標記ʔis … an。

This thesis aims to provide a preliminary description of the phonology, lexicon, and syntax of Takibakha, one of the Northern dialects of Bunun.
Takibakha Bunun has 16 consonants and 5 vowels. A significant finding is that Takibakha has five phonemic vowels (/i, e, a, o, u/), rather than three as claimed in previous studies.
In the discussion of lexicon, two topics, numerals and temporal expressions are covered. Takibakha numerals are divided into cardinal, indefinite, limitative, multiplicative, fractional, distributive, and ordinal. Temporal expressions are divided into specific time expressions and deictic expressions.
As for syntax, I discuss construction markers (including case marking system, personal pronouns, deictic expressions, and ligatures), basic properties of clauses (including word order, the structure of nominal and verbal clauses, and more specifically, focus, aspect, and mood), and four types of clauses (including adverbial, reciprocal, interrogative, and negative clauses) in Takibakha. The following observations are made in the discussion of Takibakha syntax. First, I argue for the occurrence of two case markers in Takibakha: (C)a and (C)i, rather than one as claimed in previous studies. These two markers are used to mark nominative and oblique cases, respectively. Second, I observe that third person pronouns behave like demonstratives rather than first and second person pronouns. Third, I observe the occurrence of five focuses, rather than four, in Takibakha. The fifth focus is marked by ʔis-…-an, which is used to indicate beneficiary focus.

Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract ii
Acknowledgments iii
List of Abbreviations v
List of Tables.. ix
List of Figures. xi
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
1.1. Objectives of this Research 1
1.2. About the People and Language 1
1.2.1. Geographic Setting, Population, and Customs 1
1.2.2. The Dialects 3
1.3. The Position of Bunun within the Austronesian Language Family 6
1.4. Data Sources 10
1.5. Previous Studies 14
1.5.1. The Southern Dialect: Isbukun 14
1.5.2. The Central Dialects: Takbanuaz and Takivatan 17
1.5.3. The Northern Dialects: Takibakha and Takituduh 18
1.6. Organization of This Thesis 21
Chapter 2: Takibakha Phonology 23
2.1. Takibakha Phoneme Inventory 23
2.1.1. Consonants 23
2.1.2. Vowels 27
2.2. Stress 31
2.3. Diachronic Phonology 31
2.4. Morphophonemics 32
Chapter 3: Takibakha Lexicon 35
3.1. Numerals 35
3.1.1. Cardinal Numbers 36
3.1.2. Indefinite Numbers 40
3.1.3. Limitative Numbers 40
3.1.4. Multiplicative Numbers 42
3.1.5. Fractional Numbers 43
3.1.6. Distributive Numbers 45
3.1.7. Ordinal Numbers 45
3.2. Temporal Expressions 46
Chapter 4: Construction Markers 51
4.1. Case Marking System 51
4.1.1. Case Marking of Full Nouns 51
4.1.2. Personal Pronouns 57
4.1.2.1. Semantic and Case Distinctions and Morphological Relationships 58
4.1.2.2. Functions of First and Second Person Pronouns 60
4.2. Third Person Pronouns and Deictic Expressions 65
4.2.1. Third Person Pronouns 65
4.2.2. Deictic Expressions 68
4.2.3. Similarities and Differences between Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives 69
4.3. Ligatures 70
Chapter 5: Some Basic Properties of Clauses 77
5.1. Word Order 77
5.2. Nominal Clauses 80
5.3. Focus System 81
5.4. Aspect and Mood 89
5.4.1. Takibakha Aspect System 90
5.4.1.1. Imperfective 92
5.4.1.2. Perfective 96
5.4.1.3. Adverbial Enclitics 97
5.4.2. Mood 99
5.4.2.1. Indicative 99
5.4.2.2. Non-indicative 100
Chapter 6: Adverbial Clauses, Reciprocal Clauses, Negative Clauses, and Interrogative Clauses 103
6.1. Adverbial Clauses 103
6.2. Reciprocal Clauses 110
6.3. Interrogative Clauses 116
6.4. Negative Clauses 120
Chapter 7: Conclusion 127
References........ 131

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