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研究生:曼尼詩
研究生(外文):Manish Bhuwan
論文名稱:Histidine-containing Phosphotransfer Protein-B (HptB) Regulates Swarming Motility through Partner-switching System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 strain
論文名稱(外文):綠膿桿菌PAO1中hptB蛋白藉由夥伴交換系統調控群泳能力之分析
指導教授:張晃猷
指導教授(外文):Chang, Hwan You
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:分子醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:含組氨酸的磷酸轉移蛋白B群泳夥伴交換系統綠膿桿菌雙分子系統
外文關鍵詞:Histidine phosphotransfer protein BSwarmingPartner switching systemPseudomonas aeruginosaTwo component system
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含組氨酸的磷酸轉移蛋白B (HptB, PA3345)是在Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1中,參與將磷酸基從多重感應激酶轉移到反應調控子PA3346的其中之一個蛋白。本論文研究目標是探討HptB-PA3346交互作用和其調控機制的生物意義。剔除hptB基因突變株作轉錄分析(transcription-profiling analysis)後,發現一系列與移動性相關的基因改變,與突變株群泳(swarming)性狀的觀察情形一致。蛋白質結構分析發現,PA3346的C端區域(PA3346C)與枯草桿菌 anti-sigma因子SpoIIAB顯示出大約百分之三十的相似度。利用體外磷酸化分析得知,Ser/Thr蛋白激酶活化anti-sigma拮抗劑PA3347胺基酸Ser-56,此現象也在PA3346C中被證實。此外,PA3346C和anti-σ28因子FlgM發現不管在體內還是體外實驗,都與PA3347有直接作用。在反應時,FlgM取代PA3346C與PA3347結合,之後σ28完全取代掉PA3347-FlgM複合體中的 PA3347,形成磷酸根依賴性夥伴交換系統。藉由分析剔除PA3346基因突變株和其互補株,本研究建立PA3347磷酸化在連結夥伴交換系統和群泳移動力中,所扮演的重要性。在hptB基因突變株將磷酸酯解酶過度表現,則會發現群泳性狀缺陷的情況會回復,顯示出htpB蛋白調節細胞內訊號分子環狀雙鳥嘌呤單磷酸(cyclic-di-GMP)訊息傳遞路徑進而調控群泳性狀。
The Histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein-B (HptB, PA3345) is an intermediate protein involved in transferring a phosphoryl group from multiple sensor kinases to the response regulator PA3346 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The objective of this study is to elucidate the biological significance of the HptB-PA3346 interaction and the regulatory mechanisms thereafter. The transcription-profiling analysis of an hptB knockout mutant showed that the expression of a number of motility-related genes was altered, consistent with the non-swarming phenotype observed for the mutant. Domain analysis indicates that the PA3346 C-terminal region (PA3346C) exhibits approximately 30% identity with the anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB of Bacillus subtilis. The presence of Ser/Thr protein kinase activity-targeting an anti-sigma antagonist PA3347 at Ser-56 was confirmed in PA3346C using an in vitro phosphorelay assay. Furthermore, PA3346C and the anti-σ28 factor FlgM were found to interact with PA3347 individually both in vivo and in vitro. FlgM displaced PA3346C in binding of PA3347 and was then competitively displaced by σ28 from the PA3347-FlgM complex, forming a phosphorylation-dependent partner-switching system. The significance of PA3347 phosphorylation in linking the partner-switching system and swarming motility was established by analyzing the swarming phenotype of the PA3347 knockout mutant and its complement strain. The over expression of phosphodiesterase in hptB mutant restore its swarming motility defect showing the role of intracellular signaling molecule cyclic-di-GMP in regulating the motility behavior of HptB mediated signaling pathway.
TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
Acknowledgement II
Abstract (Chinese) III
Abstract (English) IV
Table of Content V
List of Figures VII
List of Tables VIII

Chapter 1 General Introduction 1

Chapter 2 Review of Literature 6
2.1. Two component system 7
2.2. Serine/Threonine protein kinase 13
2.3. Partner switching mechanism 16
2.4. Anti-sigma and sigma factors in P. aeruginosa 18
2.5. Synthesis of flagellum in P. aeruginosa 20
2.6. Recent advances in FliA and FlgM interaction 21
2.7. Role of cyclic-di-GMP in motility of P. aeruginosa 22

Chapter 3 Materials and Methods 24

3.1 Materials 25
3.1.1. Chemicals 25
3.1.2. Enzymes 25
3.1.3. Antibody 26
3.1.4. Bacterial culture medium 26
3.1.5. Bacterial strain and plasmids 28
3.1.6. Oligonucleotides or primers 30
3.2. Methods 33
3.2.1. in silico analyses 33
3.2.2. Bioinformatics analysis 33
3.2.3. Bacterial growth conditions and storage 33
3.2.4. Preparation of genomic DNA 34
3.2.5. Plasmid DNA preparation 34
3.2.6. Electrophoretic DNA separation 35
3.2.7. PCR amplification of DNA fragments 36
3.2.8. Enzymatic manipulation of plasmid DNA 36
3.2.9. Construction of plasmids 38
3.2.10. Competent cells 39




3.2.11. Transformation 40
3.2.12. Recombinant protein expression in E. coli 40
3.2.13. Purification of recombinant proteins 41
3.2.14. Sodium dodecyl sulfate- Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis 44
3.2.19. Kinetics of PA3347 phosphorylation 47
3.2.20. Microarray analysis 49
3.2.21. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis 52
3.2.22. Protein-protein-interaction studies 54
3.2.23. Bacterial phenotype study 57

Chapter 4 Results 61
4.1 Transcriptional profiling of the P. aeruginosa PAO1 and hptB mutant 62
4.2. Quantitative real-time PCR for validation experiment 65
4.3. Expression and purification His-tagged proteins 66
4.4. Expression and purification GST-tagged proteins 66
4.5. The C-terminal region of PA3346 contains a kinase domain 69
4.6. PA3346C is a divalent cation-dependent Ser/Thr protein kinase 72
4.7. MALDI-TOF for PA3346C phosphorylates PA3347 at Ser-56 73
4.8. Kinetic determination of PA3346 towards PA3347 75
4.9. Pull down assay with glutathione agarose beads 76
4.10. PA3347 interacts with FlgM as well as with PA3346C in bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay 78
4.11. Co-immunoprecipitation of PA3347 with FlgM and PA3346C proteins in vivo 81
4.12. Quantitative real-time PCR for fliA and flgM expression 82
4.13. Competitive interaction using GST pull down assay 82
4.14. Bacterial phenotype study 85

Chapter 5 Discussion 92

Chapter 6 Summary and Conclusion 98

References 104

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