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研究生:楊易霖
研究生(外文):Yi-lin Yang
論文名稱:尼泊爾埋葬蟲(Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope)(Coleoptera: Silphidae)個體大小對性徵與鳴叫行為之影響
論文名稱(外文):The influence of body sizes on the sexualcharacteristics and the vocal behavior of(Nicrophorus nepalensis Hope)(Coleoptera:Silphidae)
指導教授:黃文伯黃文伯引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-po Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺南大學
系所名稱:生態科學與技術學系環境生態碩士班
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:攝食量性徵退化個體大小尼泊爾埋葬蟲鳴叫行為聲音特徵
外文關鍵詞:food consumptiondegeneration of sexual characteristicsbody sizeNicrophorus nepalensisvocal behaviorsound characteristics
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本文探討台灣中部尼泊爾埋葬蟲(Nicrophorus nepalensis)的活躍期,以及海拔高度、溫度對個體數量與大小之影響,以及劣勢個體在形態與聲音上的適應策略。2010 年6 月至2011 年5 月於阿里山奮起湖以雞肉誘集尼泊爾埋葬蟲,6 月、7 月和10 月為捕獲數量高峰季。海拔高度與捕獲數量和個體大小有顯著正相關,平均環境溫度對捕獲數量無顯著相關,但對於個體大小呈現負相關,平均溫度越高則個體越小。
野外個體及實驗室子代之前胸背板寬與第二性徵大小顯著正相關。親代第二性徵大小與子代並無遺傳相關性。羽化成功率與幼蟲重量呈正相關,三齡幼蟲在離巢時體重為0-50mg 將會在24h 內死亡,幼蟲的存活閾值為100mg。雄性出現第二性徵退化的現象,為幼蟲期重量150mg 以下,或前胸背板寬度4.0mm 以下。
個體相遇的鳴叫行為,雄蟲遇雌蟲時全部皆有鳴叫行為,第二性徵退化雄蟲則皆無鳴叫行為;雄蟲在遭遇入侵者時,大個體鳴叫行為次數顯著高於小個體;
體型相似雄蟲的鳴叫行為無顯著性差異;雌蟲在遭遇幼蟲時鳴叫比例顯著高於遭遇雌蟲與雄蟲。顯示雄蟲在聲音行為上可能偏好交配投資與防禦競爭者,雌蟲則可能偏好在親養投資。關於尼泊爾埋葬蟲的聲音特徵,雄蟲在遭遇雄蟲時,鳴叫次數、鳴叫持續時間和主要頻率為最高,分別為29 ± 18.5 次、4.19 ± 2.07secs 和2828~12409 Hz。當雄蟲遭遇雌蟲時,脈衝次數與脈衝率為最高,分別為37.1 ±4.89 次和550.08 ± 45.2 pulses/secs。雌蟲則是在遭遇幼蟲時,鳴叫次數、基礎頻率和主要頻率最高,分別為41.6 ± 3.17 次、1676.4 ± 86.1 Hz 和2039~12082 Hz;
而兩隻雌蟲相遇時鳴叫持續時間、脈衝次數和脈衝率則為最高,分別為7.1 ±1.35secs、37.4±2.82 次和464.9 ± 26.16 pulses/secs。
This article explores active period of Nicrophorus nepalensis in central Taiwan,
and the influence of altitude and temperature on the number and body size, as well as
the adaptation strategies of inferiority individual in shape and sound. From June 2010
to May 2011, Nicrophorus nepalensis were trapped with chicken in Fenci Lake,
Alishan, and the peak season of capturing was in June, July and October. The
captured amount, as well as the body size, had a significantly positive correlation with
the altitude. However, the captured amount was not significantly correlated with the
average ambient temperature, but the body size was negatively correlated with the
average ambient temperature; the higher the average temperature was, the smaller the
individual became.
The pronotum width and the size of secondary sexual characteristics of wild
individuals and laboratory-bred offspring were significantly positively correlated, but
there was no genetic correlation between the sizes of secondary sexual characteristics
of the parents and the offspring. Eclosion success rate and larval weight was
significantly positively correlated, pronotum width and the size of secondary sexual
characteristics was significantly positively correlated. The third-instar larvae with
weights between 0 and 50mg died within 24 hours. The surviving threshold of larvae
was 100mg. The male showed degeneration of secondary sexual characteristics when
the weight was less than 150mg at the dispersal larval stage of third-instar larvae or its
pronotum width was less than 4.0mm.
All male individuals have vocal behavior when encountering a female individual,
except for male individuals with degenerated secondary sexual characteristics. In the
event of an intruder, the vocal behavior in the number of a large male individual is
significantly more intensive than that of the small one, and there is no significant
difference in vocal behavior among male individuals with similar body sizes. When a
female individual encounters a larva, the ratio of vocal behaviors is significantly
higher than when encountering a female or male individual. This suggests that the
male individuals might prefer mating investment and defense competitors in voice
behavior, but females might prefer parental investment. As for the sound
III
characteristics of a male individual, the number, duration and major frequency of
chirping, which are 29 ± 18.5 times, 4.19 ± 2.07 seconds and 2828 ~ 12409 Hz,
respectively, are the highest when two male individuals encounter. When a male
individual encounters a female individual, the pulse frequency and pulse rate are the
highest, which are 37.1 ± 4.89 times and 550.08 ± 45.2 pulses/seconds, respectively.
For a female individual, the number, fundamental frequency and major frequency of
chirping are the highest when encountering a larva, which are 41.6 ± 3.17 times,
1676.4 ± 86.1 Hz and 2039~12082 Hz, respectively. When two female individuals
encounter, the chirping duration, pulse frequency and pulse rate are the highest, which
are 7.1 ± 1.35seconds, 37.4 ± 2.82 times and 464.9 ± 26.16 pulses/seconds,
respectively.
中文摘要........................................................................................................................ I
Abstract ........................................................................................................................ II
目錄 ........................................................................................................................ V
表目錄 ..................................................................................................................... VII
圖目錄 .................................................................................................................... VIII
一、前言........................................................................................................................ 1
二、前人研究................................................................................................................ 3
1. 海拔高度和溫度對埋葬蟲個體大小與數量之影響.................................... 4
2. 埋葬蟲個體的替代繁殖策略與性擇機制.................................................... 6
3. 雄蟲的鳴叫行為與策略................................................................................ 8
三、材料與方法.......................................................................................................... 11
1. 野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體活動時間與空間.................................................. 11
2. 野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體大小與時空之關係.............................................. 12
3. 溫度對野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲分布之影響...................................................... 13
4. 野外個體大小對兩性頭楯第二性徵長度的影響...................................... 13
5. 親代體型大小對後代體型與第二性徵的影響.......................................... 15
5.1 先天性親代遺傳研究.................................................................. 15
5.2 後天性環境影響研究.................................................................. 17
6. 尼泊爾埋葬蟲在聲音行為上的表現方式.................................................. 20
6.1 個體相遇的鳴叫行為.................................................................. 21
6.2 不同個體大小與雌雄個體的發聲部位比較.............................. 22
6.3 不同情境下雌雄個體聲音特徵之比較...................................... 23
7. 統計分析...................................................................................................... 26
四、結果...................................................................................................................... 27
1. 野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體活動時間與空間.................................................. 27
1.1 尼泊爾埋葬蟲於不同月份的活躍性.......................................... 27
1.2 海拔高度對個體分布之影響...................................................... 28
2. 野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體大小與時空之關係.............................................. 29
2.1 不同月份與個體前胸背板寬度之關係...................................... 29
2.2 不同海拔高度與前胸背板寬之關係.......................................... 30
2.3 不同海拔高度與雄蟲前胸背板寬之關係.................................. 31
2.4 不同海拔高度與雌蟲前胸背板寬之關係.................................. 32
2.5 相同海拔雄蟲與雌蟲前胸背板寬之比較.................................. 33
3.1 環境溫度對捕獲野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲數量之影響...................... 34
3.2 野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲前胸背板寬度與平均環境溫度之關係...... 35
4. 野外個體大小與第二性徵比值.................................................................. 36
4.1 雄蟲體型大小與第二性徵比值之關係...................................... 36
4.2 雌蟲體型大小與第二性徵比值之關係...................................... 37
5. 尼泊爾埋葬蟲雄蟲性徵退化的因子.......................................................... 38
5.1 先天性親代遺傳:親代與子代之間體型與第二性徵大小之遺傳
相關性 ...................................................................................................... 38
5.1.1 親代不同體型大小對子代前胸背板寬度之影響................. 38
5.1.2 親代不同體型大小對子代第二性徵比值之影響................. 40
5.1.3 子代前胸背板寬度與第二性徵比值之關係......................... 42
5.2 後天性環境影響:食物量對後代羽化成功率、體型與第...... 43
5.2.1 不同重量三齡幼蟲的羽化成功率......................................... 43
5.2.2 三齡幼蟲期重量對羽化後前胸背板寬度之影響................. 44
5.2.3 三齡幼蟲期重量對羽化後第二性徵比值之影響................. 46
5.2.4 子代前胸背板寬與第二性徵比值之關係............................. 48
5.2.5 雄蟲體型大小對不同重量後代的體型與第二性徵之影響. 49
5.2.6 雌蟲體型大小對不同重量後代的體型與第二性徵之影響. 51
6. 尼泊爾埋葬蟲在聲音行為上的表現方式.................................................. 53
6.1 個體相遇的鳴叫行為.................................................................. 53
6.1.1 不同性徵大小雄蟲遭遇雌蟲時的鳴叫行為......................... 53
6.1.2 占有屍體之雄蟲遭遇入侵者的鳴叫行為............................. 54
6.1.3 體型相似性徵完整雄蟲相遇時的鳴叫行為......................... 55
6.1.4 雌蟲遇到不同個體情況下的鳴叫行為................................. 56
6.2 不同個體大小與雌雄個體的發聲部位比較:銼線長度、細密橫
刻紋數量與間距之差異.............................................................................. 57
6.2.1 不同性徵大小雄蟲之比較..................................................... 57
6.2.2 體型較大雄蟲與雌蟲之比較................................................. 59
6.2.3 性徵退化雄蟲與體型較大的雌蟲之比較............................. 61
6.3 不同情境下雌雄個體聲音特徵之比較...................................... 63
五、討論...................................................................................................................... 65
1. 野外尼泊爾埋葬蟲個體活躍時間與空間.................................................. 65
2. 尼泊爾埋葬蟲雄蟲第二性徵退化的因子.................................................. 67
3. 劣勢個體的替代策略.................................................................................. 68
4.1 個體相遇的鳴叫行為.................................................................. 70
4.1.1 雄蟲遭遇雌蟲時的鳴叫行為................................................. 70
4.1.2 雄蟲相遇時的鳴叫行為......................................................... 70
4.1.3 雌蟲與子代間的鳴叫行為..................................................... 71
4.2 尼泊爾埋葬蟲在個體辨識與溝通上的聲音特徵...................... 72
六、參考文獻.............................................................................................................. 74
附錄 ....................................................................................................................... 83
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