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研究生:黃心如
研究生(外文):Hsin-ju Huang
論文名稱:英語字彙學習自我效能改變-- 男女學習差異之縱向研究
論文名稱(外文):Vocabulary Self-efficacy Change among EFL Students in Taiwan: A Longitudinal Study by Gender
指導教授:曾文鐽 博士
指導教授(外文):Dr. Wen-ta Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系在職進修碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:自我效能改變男女學習差異英語字彙學習縱向研究性別差異
外文關鍵詞:self-efficacy changevocabulary learning self-efficacygender differencelongitudinal studylearning difference
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社會認知學習理論學家班都拉(Bandura)自1977年提出名為「自我效能:朝向一致的行為改變理論」研究以來,學者們即以不同學科及多樣性知識領域來審視自我效能的概念原則與應用。此後大量研究結果(如1996年的Pajares、2006年的Garcia & Maria de Caso、2001年的 Bouffard-Bouchard、2007年的Hunk & Zimmerman 及1986、1933、1977年的 Bendura)揭示了自我效能的重要性,並廣受多數學者們支持。自我效能論,是班都拉在1982年根據社會學習論,所提出的以自我效能論來解釋之動機理論,他認為人在追求目標中,面臨特殊之工作動機強弱,乃取決於個人對於自我效能的評估。廣泛自我效能研究大多專注在學業的成績表現(如第二語言習得、數學及自然科學)、動機領域(如歸因、目標設定)、情感領域(如動機、焦慮及沮喪)、或是認知過程(如記憶表現、學習策略的運用) 以及臨床問題研究(如煙癮、毒癮、酒癮、恐懼症及糖尿病之變化與控制)。儘管學界已進行了數個以個人因素影響自我效能評估的研究,例如:年齡、性別、種族特性以及社會文化因素研究(如社會經濟地位)(2004年的Ellis)。但深入研究探討性別對自我效能於第二語言學習者學習英語字彙的影響,卻付之闕如。也許是因為眾人就性別對學業成績表現的影響已有個既定的成見,認為社會及文化才是其背後最主要的影響因素(1996年的 Jovanovic & Dreves、2001年的 Gallagher)。

本研究旨在調查台灣高中生英語字彙學習自我效能是否有性別差異之影響。自2007年9月起至2008年6月止,研究員採用問卷調查方法,對873位來自台北市郊區兩所公立高中一年級的學生,進行為期十個月之縱向研究。分別在高一全學年六個期中考時間點前,蒐集問卷並進行量化評估。最後獲得有效問卷601份,問卷資料以二因子混合設計進行統計分析,以測定性別差異對英語字彙自我效能的影響。此外,由其中一所公立高中隨機選取六位學生,男女生各半,於上、下學期期末進行集體訪談,以期深究出能合理解釋男、女生在英語字彙學習自信心轉變之重要因素。綜合上述文獻分析及調查研究結果顯示,整體而言,在初期,男女生對英文字彙學習自我效能信念並無差異,但隨著時間發展,男性的英文字彙學習自我效能信念顯然比女性為高。兩性在六個不同的時間點,在自我效能上皆表現出規律的變化模式。本研究最後依據文獻分析討論及調查研究結論,提出具體英文字彙教學策略建議,以提供教師如何針對性別差異,提昇並激發個人英文字彙學習自我效能。最後,提出各項建議及計畫作為學校課程發展參考,並對校方及國家英語教育當局規劃者與未來研究者提供建議,以期創造更優質之第二語言英文字彙學習情境,確切落實於學校教育,俾使兩性在英文教育領域中獲得更佳之學習機會與潛能發展。

Since Bendura’s (1977) study, “Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavior Change”, the tenets of self-efficacy have been examined in diverse disciplines and settings. The importance of self-efficacy beliefs has received support from a massive body of findings (Pajares, 1996; Garcia & Maria de Caso, 2006; Bouffard-Bouchard, 2001; Hunk & Zimmerman, 2007; Bendura, 1986, 1933, 1977). These studies have focused on academic achievement (e.g., L2 language acquisition, science and mathematics), motivation (e.g. attribution, goal setting), affect (e.g. motivation, anxiety and depression), cognitive processes (e.g., memory performance, learning strategies use), and clinical problems (e.g., addiction to smoking, drugs and alcohol, phobias, and metabolic control in diabetes). Although several studies have been conducted to assess the influence of individual factors like age, gender and socio-cultural factors such as ethnic identity and socio-economic status (Ellis, 2004), in-depth studies conducted to assess the possible influence of gender on the self-efficacy of learners for second language (L2) vocabulary have been sparse. This is perhaps because of the existing belief that social and cultural factors are the major underlying forces leading to gender differences in academic performance (Jovanovic and Dreves, 1996; Gallagher, 2001).

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of gender on self-efficacy change for L2 vocabulary learning by adolescents in Taiwan. The longitudinal research was conducted on 601 first year senior high school students in a suburban public school in Taipei city, from September 2007 to June 2008. The researcher adopted a mixed method research, inclusive of a quantitative phase and a qualitative phase in the overall research study. In the first phase, a quantitative assessment of the year ten high school students' vocabulary self-efficacy beliefs was applied by conducting mixed designs to determine gender-based differences in those beliefs over six time points prior to the mid-term examinations. The major findings of the current study showed that learners held similar self-efficacy beliefs at the initial stage in English vocabulary learning and on average, the total males' self-efficacy levels were higher than those of females' through time. Both genders showed regular self-efficacy change patterns through six different time points. In the second phase, a follow-up semi-structured focus group interview was scheduled at the end of the two semesters with the same small-group of randomly chosen six students ( 3 males and 3 females, from one of the senior high schools ) involved, to explore if there were any possible factors that influence learners' self- efficacy change through time. A total of six themes (past learning experience, goal setting, attribution, social support, teachers' expectation and feedback and peer pressure) were identified to be related to self-efficacy change through time. The pedagogical implication of gender differences in self-efficacy were then examined in light of the existing literature with a view to adopting strategies applicable in the L2 vocabulary learning context. Finally, some suggestions and plans were provided as reference for the development of curricula, school faculty and educational authority to promote both female and male learners the opportunity and maximize their full potential in the L2 classroom learning context.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
中文摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Motivation 1
The importance of vocabulary learning 2
The importance of gender and gender difference 3
The importance of self-efficacy belief 5
Purposes of the Study 7
The significance of the study 8
Organization of the Study 11
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 13
Self-efficacy and Social Cognitive Theory 15
Social Cognitive Theory 15
Self-efficacy and Social cognitive theory 17
Psychological construct of academic self-efficacy 19
Self-efficacy changes over the human lifespan 26
Academic Self-efficacy studies over time (Some Empirical Research) 32
Foreign Studies 32
Domestic studies 33
Gender and Gender difference 35
The Kaleidoscope of Gender 35
Gender difference in academic learning (Cognition) 39
Gender difference and Self-efficacy in Language Learning (Some Empirical Research) 43
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 51
Participants and Setting 52
Quantitative phase 52
Qualitative phase 53
Instrumentation 54
Questionnaires 54
Follow-up semi-structure focus group interview 57
Data Collection Procedures 58
Quantitative phase 58
Qualitative phase 61
Data Analysis 62
Quantitative phase 62
Qualitative phase 63
CHAPTER FOUR RESULT 64
Results of the questionnaire 64
The summary of the primary findings 64
Vocabulary learning self-efficacy difference between genders 66
Vocabulary self-efficacy changes between genders over time 67
Male students' self-efficacy change over time 68
Female students' self-efficacy change over time 70
Results of the semi-structured focus group interview 72
The major themes at Time 1 72
The major themes at Time 2 74
The major theme at Time 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 75
The major themes at Time 4 78
The major themes at Time 3 and 6 79
The major themes at time 5 80
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS82
Discussion 82
Research Question One: 82
Research Question Two 86
Research Question Three 89
Pedagogical Implication 98
The pedagogical implication for enhancing male/female learners’ vocabulary self- efficacy belief 98
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 107 Conclusions 107
Smmary of the major findings 107
Limitations and Suggestions for future research 109
APPENDIX A 125
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