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研究生(外文):Liu Yi Ting
論文名稱(外文):The Quest for a Place of Attachment in Edith Wharton's Three Gilded Age Novels
指導教授(外文):Lin Hsiu Ling
外文關鍵詞:Gilded AgePlace of AttachmentIdentityOtherCommodityHotelMobility
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本篇論文旨在探討伊蒂絲˙華頓及其三本鍍金時代小說中女主人翁追尋依附空間的歷程。十九世紀南北戰後的美國經濟快速成長、暴發戶崛起,造就了馬克˙吐溫筆下的鍍金時代。這個時代炫富文化橫行,上流社會女性被視為男性資產。他們衣著華麗、出席各式社交場合,以維持家族聲望和地位。然而,光鮮亮麗的外表下,女性面臨了「物化」、「他者化」所帶來的身分認同危機。如何與其所處的環境建立情感上的依附關係,並將父權社會轉換成賦權空間,成為女性獲得歸屬感的依據。因此在討論創造依附空間的可能性時,首先我會指出空間和身分是相互定義的。當一個人能夠與一個地方產生正向的連結,這個地方將被賦予「家」的意義。第一章討論華頓的作品、生平以及她「第一個真正的家」— 蒙特。從中我們將發現依附空間在女性的身心健康、自我建構上扮演著不可或缺的重要角色。第二章分析【歡樂之家】中莉莉˙巴特尋找家的過程。藉由去商品化和經濟關係的扭轉,莉莉最後在愛和友誼中得到啟迪。第三章檢視【國家的習俗】中,昂黛˙斯普拉格如何利用旅館、公共空間以及她數次的離婚所提供的移動自由,為自己建立數個流動的家。第四章探討【純真年代】中,艾倫˙奧蘭斯卡的無家可歸。艾倫放蕩不羈的生活方式挑戰社會的傳統與權威,使其成為衛道人士眼中「具威脅性的他者」。無法得到家族的支持與諒解,艾倫只能接受被放逐的命運。 最後,我將總結依附空間僅存在平衡對等的權力關係中。然而,鍍金時代大部分的婦女對自己的生活並無主控權,尋求、生產依附空間成了艱辛而漫長的旅程。
The thesis aims to explore Wharton’s production of homes and her female protagonists’ quest for a place of attachment in her three Gilded Age novels: The House of Mirth (1905), The Custom of the Country (1915) and The Age of Innocence (1920). Characterized by the conspicuous consumption and the display of wealth, the Gilded Age society was constructed within the context of gender inequalities. To secure a place of her own, a woman had to establish an affective tie with her society, turning her living environment into a site of empowerment. However, unable to take control of their life, most women only felt a sense of placelessness. Thus, to discuss the possibility and futility of their quest, first I will point out that “place” and “identity” are mutually defined, and a place becomes home when a woman endows it with meanings to which she can feel attached. In chapter one, by looking into Wharton’s life and works and her design of the Mount, I will argue that a place of attachment is integral to a woman’s well-being and self- conceptualization. In chapter two, I will talk about Lily Bart’s decommodification and her final enlightenment in The House of Mirth. In chapter three, I will examine how Undine Spragg in The Custom of the Country utilizes “the freedom of movement” provided by the hotel and her several divorces to establish her homes in mobility. In chapter four, I will turn to discuss Ellen Olenska’s futile search for a place of attachment in The Age of Innocence. Finally, I will conclude that a place of attachment will be produced when one can find in it a balanced power relation.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iii
Abbreviations v

Introduction 1
I. Having A Place of Her Own 3
II. Place and Identity 4

Chapter One: Edith Wharton and Her Production of Homes 11

Chapter Two: Lily Bart and Her Place of Attachment in The House of Mirth
I. Lily Bart as a Commodity 20
II. Discovering a Place of Her Own 27

Chapter Three: Undine Spragg and Her Homes in Mobility in The Custom of the Country
I. Hotels as Homes in the Gilded Age 36
II. Undine Spragg and Her Homes in Mobility 41

Chapter Four: Ellen Olenska and Her Placelessness in The Age of Innocence
I. Ellen Olenska as the Threatening Other 52
II. Not at Home: Ellen Olenska and Her Placelessness 58

Conclusion 68
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