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研究生:邱淑伶
研究生(外文):Shu-Ling Chiu
論文名稱:註解模式與進行活動時間對於臺灣國中學生英語字彙辨識學習之效益研究
論文名稱(外文):Gloss Types, Time-on-task, and Their Effects on Word Recognition: A Study of Taiwanese Junior High School Learners of English
指導教授:吳美貞吳美貞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Mei-Chen Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系在職進修碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:註解型式多重註解實驗時間字彙辨識
外文關鍵詞:Gloss typesMultiple-choice glossesTime-on-taskWord recognition
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本研究目的在探討國中學生在閱讀情境中,輔以單一註解或多重註解後,對於英語單字字彙之辨識學習成效以及對於多重註解的感知;另外也提出對於不同註解可能所需不同操作時間的實驗方法作檢定;希望能透過合理的實驗時間設定,進一步了解學生在閱讀情境中,何種註解方式能帶給學生最大的單字辨識學習效益。本研究提出三個研究問題:(一)對於國中學生,何種註解方式在單字辨識學習上有較大的助益?(二)在多重註解的實驗設計中,施測時間長度是否會影響單字的學習效果?(三)國中學生對於多重註解的感知為何?本研究以北台灣某國中三個班級共96位九年級學生為實驗對象,將此三個班級分為單一註解、多重註解、及延長時間多重註解共三個組別。所有學生均參與字彙前測,在確定學生都不會目標單字後,閱讀測驗活動開始實施;三個組別均閱讀相同文章及回答相同理解問題,不同組別接受不同類型的單字註解,而延長時間組別則可多獲得3分鐘的閱讀活動時間,閱讀活動進行完後即接受立即後測;實驗結束的二個星期後,則接受延宕後測。多重註解組及延長時間多重註解組的學生需另填一份問卷;最後再視學生的回答能力,從這兩組中各挑出5名學生作為焦點訪談團體,以進一步了解國中學生對於多重註解的感知。
量化資料顯示,在相同的閱讀時間下,多重註解不見得會比單一註解產生較多的字彙辨識學習效益;但若給予多重註解組足夠的閱讀時間,學生多能善用時間在推論過程,進而使多重註解組明顯地產生較高的字彙辨識學習效益;本實驗結果符合了Hulstijn 和Laufer提出的專注量假說(Involvement Load Hypothesis),亦即能引發較高專注量的學習活動通常能產生較高的字彙學習量;而引發較高專注量的學習活動通常也需花費較多的時間。另外,由質化資料分析得知,約有七成的研究對象,對於在國中階段使用多重註解於閱讀練習中抱持正面或不排斥的態度;深入分析訪談後,多重註解組的學生們認為在閱讀中使用多重註解 (1)能使字意推測變得較容易;(2)能強化學生對於單字的印象;(3)是能引起學習動機且具有挑戰性的。
最後,針對本研究結果,作者認為融合多重註解進入國中生的閱讀練習中在字彙認識上有一定的幫助,但仍需就課程實施者的目的、時間與實施情境來考量,因此提出幾項建議作為國中教學實務及未來研究上的參考。
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of two gloss types (single-translation gloss and multiple-choice gloss) on word recognition. The factor “time-on-task” (experiment time) was of concern because multiple-choice glosses, which involve more mental effort, were supposed to be more time consuming. Since multiple-choice glosses were new to the junior high participants, their perceptions towards multiple-choice glosses were also investigated. By manipulating different time-on-task and gloss types, the current study attempted to find out whether multiple-choice glosses generate better effects on word recognition in junior high learners.
Three research questions were proposed: (a) Does multiple-choice glosses (MCG) generate better effects on word recognition than single-translation glosses (STG)? (b) Does the factor ‘time-on-task’ have any effects on multiple-choice glossed groups in terms of word recognition? (c) What are the perceptions towards MCG of the learners from the MCG and MCG-E groups? 96 ninth-graders from three intact classes in a junior high school in northern Taiwan participated in the research. They were distributed into three groups: single-translation group (STG), multiple-choice group (MCG), and multiple-choice group with extended time (MCG-E). All three groups received the same reading material and vocabulary pre-test, but with different gloss types or time-on-task. An unexpected immediate posttest and a two-week delayed posttest were administrated to collect data. An independent sample t-test was conducted to obtain the quantitative results. Participants in the MCG and MCG-E groups accomplished a survey about their experiences and perceptions towards multiple-choice glosses. In-depth focus-group interviews were conducted to have a further understanding of their perceptions.
The findings suggest that adopting multiple-choice glosses in reading is indeed more time-consuming but has better effects on word recognition. That is, teachers might consider giving junior high learners more time to process multiple-choice glosses in reading, and the ‘time investment’ will turn into a fertile learning effect. The qualitative data reveal that most of the participants showed positive attitude towards incorporating multiple-choice glosses in their reading exercises. Their reasons for liking the multiple-choice gloss includes: (a) it makes the inferencing more accessible (b) it serves as reinforcement, reinforcing the lexical learning and retention; and (c) it is a challenging and motivating task for junior high learners. Some pedagogical implications were proposed for instructors and learners.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ii
中文摘要 v
ABSTRACT vi
LIST OF FIGURES vii
LIST OF TABLES vii
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 5
1.3 Significance of the Study 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Definition of Terms 7
1.6 Organization of the Thesis 7
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE 9
2.1 The Importance of Learning Lexical Words through Reading 9
2.2 Inferring Unknown Words in Reading as an Essential Skill for Learners 11
2.3 Application of Glosses and its Effects on Lexical Learning 13
2.4 Theoretical Accounts for Using Multiple-choice Glosses 16
2.4.1 Depth of Processing 16
2.4.2 Involvement Load Hypothesis 17
2.5 Empirical Studies Comparing the Effects of Single-translation Glosses and Multiple-choice Glosses 20
2.6 Summary 29
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 33
3.1 Participants 33
3.2 Materials 34
3.2.1 Target Words and Vocabulary Pre-test 34
3.2.2 Reading passages and comprehension questions 35
3.2.3 Immediate posttest and delayed posttest 36
3.2.4 Survey and focused-group interviews 38
3.3 Procedures 39
3.4 Data Analysis 41
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 43
4. 1 Results 43
4.1.1 Word Recognition from the Single-translation Gloss and Multiple-choice Gloss Conditions 43
4.1.1.1 The Participants’ Word Recognition on the Immediate Vocabulary Posttest 44
4.1.1.2 The Participants’ Vocabulary Retention on the Delayed Vocabulary Posttest 45
4.1.2 The Effects of Time-on-task on Word Recognition from Multiple-choice Gloss Groups 46
4.1.2.1 The Participants’ Word Recognition on the Immediate Vocabulary Posttest 47
4.1.2.2 The Participants’ Vocabulary Retention on the Delayed Vocabulary Posttest 48
4.2 Discussions of Quantitative Data 49
4.2.1 Accounting Factors for Moderate Word Recognition from the MCG Group 50
4.2.2 Time-on-task and its Facilitative Effects on Word Recognition in the MCG-E group 54
4.3 Qualitative Results and Findings 57
4.3.1 Multiple-choice Gloss as a New Intervention for Junior High Learners 58
4.3.2 Positive Attitude towards Using MCG from Junior High Learners 59
4.3.3 Reasons for Liking MCG 60
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION 71
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings 71
5.2 Theoretical Implications 73
5.3 Pedagogical Implications 74
5.4 Limitations of the Study 78
5.5 Suggestions for Future Research 79
APPENDIX A 81
APPENDIX B 82
APPENDIX C 84
APPENDIX D 87
APPENDIX E 88
APPENDIX F 89
REFERENCE 90
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