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研究生:張虹雯
研究生(外文):Hung-Wen Chang
論文名稱:憂鬱情緒、求助態度、自我污名化、社會污名化與自我隱藏對求助行為及求助延宕影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):THe effect of depressed mood, help-seeking attitude, self stigma, social stigma and self concealment on help-seeking behavior and help-seeking delay
指導教授:王麗斐王麗斐引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Fei Wang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:教育心理與輔導學系
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:152
中文關鍵詞:憂鬱情緒求助態度污名化求助行為求助延宕
外文關鍵詞:depressed moodhelp-seeking attitudestigmahelp-seeking behaviorhelp-seeking delay
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本研究的目的是探討憂鬱情緒、求助態度、自我污名化、社會污名化、自我隱藏及性別等變項是否可以預測大學生「有」、「無」求助行為,及研究變項對求助延宕的影響。本研究以問卷調查法、方便取樣的方式進行資料的蒐集,共蒐集1,262位來自全台大專院校的大學生,其中男、女大學生各有420、842位,平均年齡為20.86歲。
研究結果顯示:(1)在性別方面,男大學生在憂鬱情緒、自我污名化、社會污名化、自我隱藏上的表現顯著高於女大學生,但在求助態度、求助行為及求助延宕上的表現則沒有差異。(2)在求助表現方面,「未求助組」、「考慮求助組」、「已求助組」三種不同求助行為的大學生在所有研究變項上皆達到顯著差異水準,此外,在事後考驗中發現,已求助者在憂鬱情緒與求助態度的得分顯著高於考慮求助與未求助者,顯示已求助者具有高憂鬱情緒及高求助態度之特徵。考慮求助者則在自我污名化、社會污名化、自我隱藏及求助延宕上,多是高於未求助與已求助者,其中在求助延宕上的表現更是遠高於其他兩組,代表考慮求助者具有高求助污名化、高求助延宕的特徵。未求助者則是在憂鬱情緒與求助態度的表現上皆是三組中最低的,未求助者與考慮求助者在自我污名化上一樣高於已求助者,代表未求助者具有低憂鬱情緒、低求助態度、較高污名化的特徵。(3)當大學生具有以下特徵:大四生、人文/社會/教育學院、有過諮商經驗、憂鬱情緒愈嚴重、愈相信心理諮商專業可以解決其困擾、愈不會認為求助會影響其自尊或自我滿意度及愈傾向隱藏與保留負向經驗與秘密時,愈可能「有」求助行為;其中,以過去曾接受諮商經驗為最具關鍵性的指標,而性別與社會污名化的影響力則未達顯著。(4)相似地,在預測求助延宕時,以過去諮商經驗、求助態度、自我污名化與自我隱藏等4個變項具預測性。(5)進一步探討中介效果,自我污名化與自我隱藏在憂鬱情緒與求助延宕的關聯中,具有完全中介的效果,而社會污名化在憂鬱情緒與求助延宕的關聯中具有部分中介的效果。然而,求助態度在憂鬱情緒與求助延宕的關聯中不具有調節效果。本研究並依據研究結果提出對心理諮商實務及未來相關研究的建議。
The purpose of this thesis is to clarify if the target variables including depressed mood, help-seeking attitude, public stigma, self concealment and gender can predict the help-seeking behavior, and the effect on help-seeking delay. This method of data collection of this thesis is survey and convenient sampling. The total sample size is 1,262, consisting of 420 male and 842 female college students from island wide. The average age is 20.86 years old.
The findings are as followed. First, as to the gender difference, male college students are significantly higher than female students on depressed mood, self stigma, public stigma, and self concealment. However, there is no difference in help-seeking attitude, help-seeking behavior and help-seeking delay.
Second, comparing the “never-help-seeker”, the “considering-help-seeker” and the “ever-help-seeker”, the group differences are significant in all research variables. In additions, the results of the Post Hoc multiple comparisons show that the depressive mood and help-seeking attitude of the “ever-help-seeker” are significantly higher than the other two groups, implying the characteristics of the ever-help-seeker are high in depressive mood and help-seeking attitude. The considering-help-seeker is higher than the other tow groups in self stigma, social stigma, self concealment, and help-seeking delay. Their score of the help-seeking delay is much higher than the other two groups, implying the characteristics of the former are high in stigma and help-seeking delay. The never-help-seeker is lowest in depressive mood and help-seeking attitude and higher than the ever-help-seeker in self stigma as the considering-help-seeker. The result implies that the characteristics of this group are low in the depressive mood and help-seeking attitude, as well as high in stigma.
Third, those college students with the following characteristics are more inclined to seek help: the senior, majoring in literature/social/educational institute, with counseling experiences, with more serious depressive mood, having stronger confidence in the effectiveness of counseling professions, with weaker belief that help-seeking will affect the self-esteem and self satisfaction, as well as more inclined to conceal and reserve negative experiences and secrets. Among all, the most critical indicator is having counseling experiences. However, the effect of gender and public stigma is not significant.
Forth, the most powerful predictors of help-seeking delay are, similarly, having counseling experiences, help-seeking attitude, self sigma and self concealment.
Fifth, to further explore the mediation effect, the self concealment has complete mediate effect between depressive mood and help-seek delay. Public stigma has partial mediation effect between depressive mood and help-seek delay. However, help-seek attitude does not moderate the depressive mood and help-seek delay.
According to the results, this thesis has some suggestions about the counseling practice and research in the future.
致謝詞....................................................................................................................i
中文摘要 ..............................................................................................................ii
英文摘要 ..............................................................................................................iv
目次 ......................................................................................................................vi
表次 ......................................................................................................................viii
圖次 ......................................................................................................................x

第一章 緒論......................................................................................................... 1
第一節 研究動機與目的................................................................................. 1
第二節 研究問題 ........................................................................................... 7
第三節 名詞定義 ........................................................................................... 7

第二章 文獻探討................................................................................................. 9
第一節 求助行為相關模式與理論.................................................................11
第二節 大學生的求助行為.............................................................................21
第三節 影響求助行為之因子.........................................................................31

第三章 研究方法.................................................................................................49
第一節 研究架構與研究假設.........................................................................49
第二節 研究對象.............................................................................................52
第三節 研究工具.............................................................................................56
第四節 研究程序.............................................................................................66
第五節 資料處理與分析.................................................................................68
第四章 研究結果.................................................................................................. 69
第一節 前導分析.............................................................................................. 69
第二節 不同性別與不同求助行為的大學生在憂鬱情緒、求助態度、自
我污名化、社會污名化、自我隱藏與求助延宕上的差異情形...... 84
第三節 憂鬱情緒、求助態度、自我污名化、社會污名化、自我隱藏對
求助行為的預測分析.......................................................................... 85
第四節 憂鬱情緒、求助態度、自我污名化、社會污名化、自我隱藏對
求助延宕的預測分析.......................................................................... 88
第五節 大學生的自我污名化、社會污名化與自我隱藏在憂鬱情緒與
求助延宕關連間的中介效果.............................................................. 89
第六節 大學生的求助態度在憂鬱情緒與求助延宕間的調節效果..............103

第五章 討論與建議..............................................................................................105

參考文獻..................................................................................................................120
中文部分..............................................................................................................120
西文部分..............................................................................................................125

附錄..........................................................................................................................138
附錄一 正式量表..................................................................................................138
附錄二 求助延宕量表的項目分析結果..............................................................148
附錄三 「流行病學研究中心憂鬱量表」使用同意書......................................149附錄四 「自我污名化量表」使用同意書..........................................................150
附錄五 「心理諮商及心理困擾污名量表」使用同意書..................................151
附錄六 「自我隱藏量表」使用同意書..............................................................152
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