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研究生:郭則佑
研究生(外文):Tzer-Yow Kuo
論文名稱:應用創傷弧菌疫苗及其免疫雞蛋黃IgY於石斑魚養殖之研究
論文名稱(外文):The application of Vibrio vulnificus vaccine and egg yolk IgY against the same vaccine on cultured grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
指導教授:劉秉忠
指導教授(外文):Ping-Chung Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:創傷弧菌佐劑疫苗石斑魚口服疫苗卡德蘭膠
外文關鍵詞:Vibrio vulnificusadjuvantvaccinegrouperoral vaccinecurdlan
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本研究探討創傷弧菌 Vibrio vulnificusGPB2疫苗及其免疫雞蛋粉IgY 對石斑幼魚之主動免疫與被動免疫的保護效果。菌株GPB2分離自罹病垂死養殖石斑魚(Epinepheluscoioides)其病徵為魚體表面多處潰爛出血。GPB2 菌株之半致死劑量為1×105 CFU/g fish body weight。

在主動免疫試驗方面,採腹腔注射創傷弧菌菌苗混合不同佐劑,在接種第 4、8 週後之結果,以大豆油混合20μg脂多醣(LPS組)保護效果最佳;大豆油混合菌苗 (大豆油組) 與5%鯊烯混合2×1010 CFU菌苗(Sq5H 組),保護效果次之。石斑魚以注射及口服接種創傷弧菌疫苗後,再以三種不同濃度劑量進行攻擊試驗,結果顯示在以 105、106CFU/ g fish body weight之劑量攻擊後,對石斑魚保護效果以洋菜膠包覆添加 0.1% (Oral I組)、curdlan 包覆 (Oral III 組) 及大豆油佐劑混合菌苗 (Inject I組) 保護效果較佳;而在以107CFU/ g fish body weight之劑量攻擊後,以 Oral I組較佳。抗體力價偵測方面,在第 4 週以Inject I組為最高,氫氧化鋁佐劑混合菌苗(Inject II 組)次之,但第8、12、16週呈現下降趨勢;而Oral I組、Oral III 組血清抗體力價分別在第 8、12 週達最高。被動免疫方面,以添加含 2%免疫雞蛋黃 IgY 保護效果最佳,在連續投餵7或14天後攻擊,活存率分別為80% 及 96.7%。

綜合以上結果,經由注射方式接種混合大豆佐劑 (Inject I 組) 之疫苗,與口服投餵洋菜膠 (Oral I 組) 和curdlan膠 (Oral III 組) 包覆菌苗均可有效增強石斑魚對抗 V. vulnificus 之感染;而投餵免疫雞蛋黃 IgY 亦可提升石斑魚對V. vulnificus 的免疫力。

The investigated the protective effects of active and passive immunization using the vaccines of Vibrio vulnificusGPB2 strainand the yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) from hens pre-immunized with the bacterium in the grouper(Epinepheluscoioides)juveniles.The bacterium was isolated from the blood of diseased grouper with ulcers and hemorrhaging on body surface and the LD50 value for fish was 1x105 CFU/g fish body weight.
In the active immunization trials, the best protective effect was observed in the group vaccinated with V.vulnificusvaccine mixedwith soya bean oil and 20µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS group) via intraperitoneal injection at 4 and 8 weeks after inoculation compared to other adjuvanted vaccines.Theprotectiveefficacy followed by the vaccine adjuvanted with soy bean oil (Soy Bean Group) and 5% of squalene mixed with2×1010 CFU vaccine (Sq5H group). Groupers vaccinated via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and oral feedingwere later challenged with three different concentrations. The results showed that after challenging with the bacterium at doses of105 and 106 CFU/g fish body weight, better protective effects were observed in grouper vaccinated with 0.1% agar coated(Oral group I), curdlan coated (Oral Group III) and soy bean oil adjuvanted vaccines (Inject Group I); while the best protective effect was observed in Oral Group I after challenging with 107 CFU/g fish body weight. For antibody titersdetection,the highest value was observed in Inject Group I at weeks4 after inoculation ,and followed by aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccine (Inject Group II) and downward trend of the tites was observed at weeks 8, 12, and 16 after inoculation; while for oral groups, serum antibody titers were highest at weeks8 and 12. Regarding passive immunization, the best protective effect was observed in the group fed with feed containing 2% of yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) by continuous feeding for 7 and 14 days with the survival rates of 80% and 96.7% respectively.
Based on the above results, the grouper vaccines i.p.,injected with adjuvanted with soy bean oil (Inject Group I),oral feeding with agar of vaccines coatied (Oral Group I) and curdlan gel (Oral Group III) exhibited effective protection against V.vulnificus infection. The feeding of yolk immunoglobulin (IgY)obtained from hens pre-immunized with vaccine of V.vulnificusGPB2 could protect the gropuer against a lethal challenge of the same Vibrio straim.

謝辭----------------------------------------I
中文摘要------------------------------------III
英文摘要------------------------------------V
目錄---------------------------------------VII
表目錄-------------------------------------XIII
圖目錄--------------------------------------XV
第一章前言-----------------------------------1
第二章文獻整理--------------------------------4
2.1 石斑魚簡介--------------------------------4
2.1.1 石斑魚養殖------------------------------5
2.2 石斑魚弧菌症------------------------------7
2.2.1 創傷弧菌 (Vibrio vulnificus)------------8
2.3 魚類免疫系統------------------------------12
2.3.1 非特異性免疫 (Non-specific immunity)----13
2.3.1.1 物理屏障-----------------------------13
2.3.1.2 細胞性免疫---------------------------14
(A) 吞噬細胞(phagocytic cell)----------------14
(B) 非特異性毒殺細胞(non-specific cytotoxiccells,NCCs)14
(C)體液性因子 (humoral factors)--------------15
(a) 運鐵蛋白 (transferrin)-------------------15
(b) 血球凝集物質 (lectins)-------------------16
(c) 干擾素 (interferon)----------------------17
(d) 補體 (complement)------------------------18
2.3.1.3 發炎反應(imflammation)---------------19
2.3.2 特異性免疫 (specific immunity)----------20
2.4 主動免疫----------------------------------20
2.4.1 魚類疫苗--------------------------------21
2.4.2 魚類疫苗接種方式-------------------------22
2.4.2.1 浸泡接種疫苗--------------------------22
2.4.2.2 注射接種疫苗--------------------------23
2.4.2.3 口服接種疫苗--------------------------23
2.4.2.4 佐劑---------------------------------24
2.4.2.4.1 鋁質佐劑---------------------------26
2.4.2.4.2 角鯊烯 (Squalene)------------------27
2.4.2.4.3 弗氏佐劑 (Freund’s adjuvant)------28
2.5 脂多醣 (lipopolysaccharide, LPS)---------28
2.6 卡德蘭膠 (curdlan)------------------------29
2.7 被動免疫----------------------------------30
2.7.1 蛋黃抗體IgY (Immunogloblin Y)-----------31
 第三章材料方法------------------------34
3.1試驗菌株-----------------------------------34
3.1.1菌株來源---------------------------------34
3.1.2菌株確認---------------------------------34
3.1.3細菌生理生化特性之------------------------34
3.1.3.1 革蘭氏染色----------------------------35
3.1.3.2KOH快速檢測----------------------------35
3.1.3.3 葡萄糖的利用--------------------------35
3.1.3.4MacConkeyAgar之生長能力----------------36
3.1.3.5 NaCl耐受性試驗------------------------36
3.1.3.6 藥物敏感性試驗------------------------36
3.1.3.7 溶血能力測定--------------------------36
3.1.3.8 Cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin agar-37
3.1.3.9 API 20E ststem-----------------------37
3.1.4聚合酶連鎖反應(Polymerase Chain Raction;PCR)38
3.1.4.1聚合酶連鎖反應--------------------------38
3.1.4.2洋菜膠膠體電泳--------------------------38
3.1.5菌株活化保種------------------------------39
3.2實驗生物-----------------------------------39
3.3蓄養系統-----------------------------------39
3.4菌株強化-----------------------------------40
3.5Vibrio vulnificus菌體對石斑魚毒性試驗--------40
3.6抗原製備-----------------------------------41
3.7兔子抗點帶石斑魚全血清之製備------------------42
3.8蛋白質含量測定------------------------------42
3.9主動免疫-----------------------------------43
3.9.1 實驗I設計: 注射接種混合不同佐劑之Vibrio vulnificus疫苗免疫試驗------------------------------------------43
3.9.2接種混合不同佐劑之疫苗---------------------44
3.9.2.1添加LPS脂多醣組-------------------------44
3.9.2.2氫氧化鋁佐劑組--------------------------44
3.9.2.3鋁明礬佐劑組----------------------------44
3.9.2.4弗氏完全佐劑組--------------------------45
3.9.2.5大豆油佐劑組----------------------------45
3.9.2.6無添加佐劑組----------------------------45
3.9.2.7添加不同濃度鯊稀-------------------------45
3.10實驗II設計:以口服、注射接種Vibrio vulnificus疫苗長效性試驗
----------------------------------------------46
3.10.1 腹腔注射疫苗-----------------------------47
3.10.2卡德蘭膠包埋膠囊--------------------------47
3.10.2.1卡德蘭膠包埋製作------------------------47
3.10.2.2卡德蘭膠-醋酸-氯化鈣最適釋放濃度----------48
3.10.3口服疫苗---------------------------------48
3.11攻擊試驗-----------------------------------49
3.12抗體力價試驗--------------------------------50
3.13被動免疫-----------------------------------50
3.13.1被動免疫實驗設計--------------------------51
3.13.2蛋粉製備---------------------------------51
3.13.3蛋粉抗體力價測試--------------------------52
3.13.4飼料製備---------------------------------53
3.13.5攻擊試驗---------------------------------53
第四章結果-------------------------------------54
4.1 菌株來源與強化------------------------------54
4.2試驗菌株生理生化特性--------------------------54
4.3 Vibrio vulnificus之溶血特性-----------------55
4.4PCR鑑定-------------------------------------56
4.5 Vibrio vulnificus菌株對石斑魚之毒性試驗------56
4.6主動免疫------------------------------------57
4.6.1 實驗一-----------------------------------57
4.6.1.1 注射接種Vibrio vulnificus菌苗混合不同佐劑之攻擊驗-57
4.6.1.2 注射接種Vibrio vulnificus混合不同佐劑菌苗之抗體力價試驗-----------------------------------------------58
4.6.2 實驗二-----------------------------------59
4.6.2.1醋酸最適卡德蘭膠釋放濃度------------------59
4.6.2.2 菌體包覆卡德蘭膠最適濃度-----------------59
4.6.2.3 氯化鈣最適卡德蘭膠釋放濃度---------------60
4.6.2.4 卡德蘭膠不同酸鹼值釋放濃度---------------60
4.6.3 以注射、口服接種Vibrio vulnificus菌苗長效性攻擊試驗-60
4.6.4 以注射、口服接種Vibrio vulnificus菌苗長效性抗體力價試
驗--------------------------------------------63
4.7被動免疫------------------------------------63
4.7.1蛋粉IgY抗體力價測試------------------------63
4.7.2攻擊試驗----------------------------------64
第五章 討論------------------------------------65
5.1創傷弧菌 (Vibrio vulnificus) 菌株特性--------65
5.2主動免疫------------------------------------66
5.2.1實驗一:注射接種創傷弧菌菌苗混合不同佐劑後對點帶斑幼魚免疫效果之毒性試驗----------------------------------66
5.2.2 實驗一:注射接種創傷弧菌菌苗混合不同佐劑後對點帶斑幼魚血清抗體力價的影響----------------------------------69
5.2.3實驗二:以注射、口服接種創傷弧菌菌苗對石斑幼魚免疫效果之試驗-------------------------------------------------71
5.2.4 實驗二:以注射、口服接種創傷弧菌菌苗對石斑幼魚免疫抗體力價之影響--------------------------------------------77
5.3被動免疫------------------------------------79
5.3.1 投餵IgY蛋粉對點帶石斑幼魚免疫效果之毒性試驗--79
總結------------------------------------------83
參考文獻--------------------------------------84
表------------------------------------------117
圖------------------------------------------127

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