(3.80.6.131) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/17 02:38
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:吳玲玲
研究生(外文):Emmy Goh Ling Ling
論文名稱:以沸石粉作為攜帶光合細菌至豐年蝦之載体之評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of Zeolite as Carrier for Photosynthetic Bacteria (Rhodobacter sphaeroides) to Brine Shrimp (Artemia sp.)
指導教授:陳瑤湖陳瑤湖引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yew-Hu Chien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:絲光沸石-1R. sphaeroides豐年蝦魚油卵磷脂旋渦混合器滋養載體總類胡蘿蔔素
外文關鍵詞:Mordenite-1R. sphaeroidesArtemiafish oillecithinvortex mixerenrichmentcarriertotal carotenoids
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:343
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:71
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
類胡蘿蔔素是一個脂溶性,具有黃色至橙紅色的色素,可以自然的在光合生物 (PSB) 里找到。他們不至給微生物,植物和水生動物顏色,但也作為抗氧化劑 , 壓力和抗病 , 及免疫調節中發揮重要的作用。沸石粉是一個多孔性的礦物,非常豐富,成本低與有吸附性能,使它成為在治療和特定營養素的良好載體。研究的目的是以最大限度地提高豐年蝦無節幼蟲 , 水產養殖里最熱門的捕食動物; 的總類胡蘿蔔素含量, 利用沸石粉作為光合細菌的載體.
本研究進行了兩個實驗。第一個是評估沸石粉 , 絲光沸石-1作為 PSB, R. sphaeroides的載體,通過分析總類胡蘿蔔素含量 (TCC) 和豐年蝦腸道內容 (GC) 投餵兩天PSB與/或沸石粉。沒有餵食作為控制。結果顯示,PSB 的處理組有更高的TCC, GC和生存比未經的處理組。沸石粉既沒有增進,也沒有減少與PSB的效果。原因為豐年蝦的濾食性與PSB (1-2μm), 沒有被安置在沸石,絲光沸石-1 (6.18μm) 里。
第一個實驗的限制是沸石粉 會沉在水底部, 擾亂了豐年蝦對光合細菌和沸石粉混合物的濾食性,導致底TCC在處理組比起當當餵PSB , 並掩蓋了沸石粉作為載體的能力。因此,為了解決第一個實驗的限制,第二個實驗進行投餵豐年蝦配合飼料對與當當PSB 餌料24小時。在2x3因子實驗設計中分析與TCC和觀察豐年蝦成長。其實驗探討了三種餌料; 餌料1作為控制,包括沸石粉,魚油和卵磷脂; 餌料2包括當當PSB在三種不同的濃度 (25, 50, 100 mg/g); 餌料3包括沸石粉,魚油,卵磷脂和三種不同濃度的PSB。結果顯示1和 3 配合餌料有低TCC 比起餌料2 當當餵PSB, 表明了沸石粉,魚油,或卵磷脂其中一有對類胡蘿蔔素帶來負面的影響。
總之,這研究顯示了, 沸石粉,絲光沸石-1並不適合作為PSB的載體餵給豐年蝦。然而,在實驗設計上提供了改進的空間。沸石粉可以作為一個潛在的載體,如果它被作為一個配合餌料類似與微囊餌料滋養給豐年蝦。此配合餌料可以助於減少PSB 量,並提供更多的TCC給動物。在未來的研究中也建議了更進一步的探討沸石粉的特性,如吸附,孔徑和表面離子電荷,以評估沸石粉作為載體的能力。
Carotenoids are lipid soluble, yellow to orange-red pigments which can be found naturally in photosynthetic organisms (PSB). They give not only colors to microorganisms, plants and, aquatic animals but also play important roles as antioxidants and, immunoregulators for stress and disease resistance. The porous mineral zeolite, being highly abundant, low-cost and with adsorption properties, makes itself a favorable carrier of therapeutics and specific nutrients. The objectives of this study were to maximize total carotenoids content in nauplii of Artemia sp., a popular prey organism in aquaculture, by using zeolite as a carrier for a PSB, Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
Two experiments were carried out in this study. The first one was to assess the ability of a zeolite, Mordenite-1 as a carrier of PSB by analyzing total carotenoid content (TCC) and gut content (GC) of Artemia fed with PSB and/or zeolite for two days. No feeding was regarded as control. The results showed treatments with PSB had higher TCC, GC and survival than treatments without. Zeolite did not enhance, although neither reduce PSB effect. The reason can be attributed to Artemia’s capability in filter-feeding PSB (1-2μm) without being accommodated in the zeolite, Mordenite-1 (6.18μm).
The limitation in first experiment was found to be the tendency of zeolite to settle at the bottom of culture system. This was thought to disturbed the filter-feeding of Artemia on PSB and zeolite mixture, resulted in lower TCC than PSB only treatments, further masked the ability of zeolite as a carrier. Therefore, to solve this limitation, the second experiment was carried out through developing a formulated diet versus PSB only for Artemia enriched in 24 hours. TCC and Artemia growth was determined with 2x3 factorial experimental designs. Three diets were evaluated; diet 1 serve as control, consisted of zeolite, fish oil and lecithin; diet 2 consisted of PSB only in three concentrations (25, 50, 100 mg/g);and diet 3 consisted of zeolite, fish oil, lecithin and three PSB concentrations. The results showed that formulated diet 1 and 3 has lower TCC than diet 2 with PSB only; indicating that either zeolite, fish oil, or lecithin brings negative effect on the carotenoids.
Overall, this study revealed zeolite, Mordenite-1 being incompatible as a carrier of PSB for Artemia. However, the study provides rooms for improvement in the experimental design. Zeolite could be use as a potential carrier if it was made into formulated diet similar as microencapsulated diet for Artemia enrichment. This formulated diet can help to reduce the amount of PSB and yet also gives more TCC to the animal. Also, it was suggested for future study to work in detail the properties of zeolite, such as adsorption, pore sizes and surface ionic charge so as to evaluate capability of zeolite as a carrier.
Table of Contents

Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………… i

摘要 ………………………………………………………………... ii

Abstract ………………………………………………………………………… iv

Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………......... vi
List of Tables ………………………………………………………………………… ix
List of Figures …………………………………………………………………………. x

Chapter 1: General Introduction ……………………………………………………........ 1

Chapter 2: Literature Review ……………………………………………………............ 4

2.1 Artemia as live food and enrichment ……………… 4

2.1.1 Enrichment components ………………………………………….................... 5

2.1.2 The use of carrier in Artemia enrichment …… 7

2.2 Zeolite properties and applications ……………… 9

2.3 Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides.. 10

2.4 Total Carotenoids, its Extraction and Analysis … 11

Chapter 3: Total Carotenoids Analysis, Gut Content Observation and Survival Rate of Artemia Fed Rhodobacter sphaeroides with Mordenite-1 as Carrier ………………………………………………………….... 14
3.1 Abstract ………………………………………………………………… 14
3.2 Introduction
………………………............................... 15
3.3 Materials and Methods ……………………………………………………....... 17
3.3.1 Experimental design …………………………………………………......... 17
3.3.2 Zeolite source and particle size characterization ……………….................................... 18
3.3.3 Culture of Artemia ……………………………………………………........ 19
3.3.4 Photosynthetic bacteria ………………………………………………............ 19
3.3.4.1 Medium and culture conditions …………………………............................ 19
3.3.5 Dried biomass collection of R. sphaeroides ……………………….............................. 20
3.3.6 Carotenoids Extraction and Total carotenoids analysis …………............................... 20
3.3.7 Gut content determination …………………………………………….............. 21
3.3.8 Statistical Analysis ……………………………………………………........ 21
3.4 Results and Discussion ……………………………………………………........ 22
3.5 Conclusion and Recommendation ……………………………………….................. 25
Chapter 4: Total Carotenoids Analysis and growth of Artemia Fed Formulated Diet (Zeolite, R. sphaeroides, Fish Oil and Lecithin) versus PSB only evaluating Mordenite-1 as Carrier …………………………………………….............. 26
4.1 Abstract ……………………………………………………………………… 26
4.2 Introduction …………………………………………………………………... 27
4.3 Materials and Methods ……………………………………………………............. 29
4.3.1 Experimental design …………………………………………………............... 29
4.3.2 Zeolite source and particle size characterization ………………........................ 29
4.3.3 Dried biomass collection of R. sphaeroides ………………………................................... 30
4.3.4 Diet preparation and composition …………………………………........................... 30
4.3.5 Carotenoids extraction and Total carotenoids analysis ………...................................... 31
4.3.6 Statistical analysis ……………………………………………………............. 32
4.4 Results and Discussion ……………………………………………………............. 33
4.5 Conclusion and Recommendation ………………………………………....................... 36
Chapter 5: General Conclusions and Recommendations …………………....................................... 37
References ………………………………………………………………………. 39

Aalbersberg, B., 1992. Carotene analysis. In: Burlingame, B., Monro, J., (Eds), Proceedings of the 3rd OCEANIAFOODS Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, pp. 91-116.
Abe, T., Nakagawa, A., Higuchi, H., Yamanaka, T., 1998. Process of feeding juvenile fish with astaxanthin-containing zooplankton. United States patent.
Agh, N., Sorgeloos, P. (Eds), 2005. Handbook of protocols and guidelines for culture and enrichment of live food for use in larviculture. Artemia & Aquatic Animals Research Center, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
Agrawal, P.K., Prabha, S., Mittal, S., 2009. Bioremedial treatment of industrial wastewater using Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Our Nature, 7(1), 237-240.
Arredondo-Vega, B.O., Leal-Lorenzo, S., López-Ruiz, J., 2004. Effect of zeolitic products in the nutritive quality of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Hidrobiológica, 14(1), 69-74.
Bengtson, D.A., 2003. Status of Marine aquaculture in relation to live prey: Past, Present and Future. In: Støttrup, J.G., McEvoy, L.A. (Eds). Live feeds in marine aquaculture. Oxford, UK, Blackwell Science, pp. 1-13.
Boonyaratpalin, M., Thongrod, S., Supamattaya, K., Britton, G., Schlipalius, L.E., 2001. Effects of β-carotene source, Dunaliella salina, and astaxanthin on pigmentation, growth, survival and health of Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture Research, 32(Suppl. 1), 182-190.
Chakraborty, R.D., Chakraborty, K., Radhakrishnan, E.V., 2007. Variation in fatty acid composition of Artemia salina nauplii enriched with microalgae and baker’s yeast for use in larviculture. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, 4043-4051.
Chen, D., Han, Y.B., Gu, Z.X., 2006. Application of statistical methodology to the optimization of fermentative medium for carotenoids production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Process Biochemistry, 41, 1773-1778.
Chen, H-F., Song, S-R., Lo, H-J., Li, L-J., Fang, J-N., Chen, Y-L., Lin, I-C., Liu, Y-J., Liu, C-M., Kuo, L-W., 2005. Dissolution of Na2O • CaO • nSiO2 glasses in Na2CO3 solution for long-term and short-term experiments. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 351, 1417-1425.
Chien, Y-H., Pan, C-H., Hunter, B., 2003. The resistance to physical stresses by Penaeus monodon juveniles fed diets supplemented with astaxanthin. Aquaculture, 216, 177-191.
Chien, Y-H., Shiau, W-C., 2005. The effects of dietary supplementation of algae and synthetic astaxanthin on body astaxanthin, survival, growth, and low dissolved oxygen stress resistance of kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 318, 201-211.
Conceição, L.E.C., Yúfera, M., Makridis, P., Morais, S., Dinis, M.T., 2010. Review Article: Live feeds for early stages of fish rearing. Aquaculture Research, 41, 613-640.
De Biévre, P.J., Vansant, E.F., Peeters, G.J., 1983. Method of encapsulating materials in a zeolite in a stable manner. United States Patent.
Dhert, P., 2005. Feed for aquatic organisms, containing algae and/or yeast. Patent Cooperation Treaty.
Dhert, P., 2009. Enrichment product for aquatic organisms comprising a gelled emulsion. European patent specification.
Dias, J., Huelvan, C., Dinis, M.T., Métailler, R., 1998. Influence of dietary bulk agents (silica, cellulose and a natural zeolite) on protein digestibility, growth, feed intake and feed transit time in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Aquatic Living Resources, 11(4), 219-226.
Domínguez, A., Ferreira, M., Coutinho, P., Fάbregas, J., Otero, A., 2005. Delivery of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis to the aquaculture food chain. Aquaculture, 250, 424-430.
Duvivier, P., Hsieh, P.C., Lai, P.Y., Charles, A.L., 2010. Retention of phenolics, carotenoids, and antioxidant activity in the taiwanese sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) CV tainong 66 subjected to different drying conditions. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and development, 10 (11).
EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2007. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) on a request from the European Commission on safety and efficacy of Panaferd-AX (red carotenoid-rich bacterium Paracoccus carotinifaciens) as feed additive for salmon and trout. The EFSA Journal, 546, pp. 1-30.
Erdem, E., Karapinar, N., Donat, R., 2004. The removal of heavy metal cations by natural zeolites. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 280, 309-314.
Eya, J.C., Parsons, A., Haile, I., Jagidi, P., 2008. Effects of Dietary Zeolites (Bentonite and Mordenite) on the Performance Juvenile Rainbow trout Onchorhynchus myskis. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2(4), 961-967.
Fachini, A., Vasconcelos, M.T.S.D., 2006. Enhancing Diatom Growth by Using Zeolites to Change Seawater Composition. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 13(4), 238-241.
Fang, T.J., Wang, J-M., 2002. Extractability of astaxanthin in a mixed culture of a carotenoid over-producing mutant of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and Bacillus circulans in two-stage batch fermentation. Process Biochemistry, 37, 1235-1245.
Florian, M., Hicks, B., Groves, D., 2002. Zeolite additive for animal feed and method of using same. Patent Cooperation Treaty.
Frank, H.A., Violette, C.A., Trautman, J.K., Shreve, A.P., Owens, T.G., Albrecht, A.C., 1991. Carotenoids in photosynthesis: structure and photochemistry. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 63(1), 109-114.
Freyhardt, C.C., Tsapatsis, M., Lobo, R.F., Balkus, JR., K.J., Davis, M.E., 1996. A high-silica zeolite with a 14-tetrahedral-atom pore opening. Nature, 381, 295-298.
Gatesoupe, F.J., 2002. Probiotic and formaldehyde treatments of Artemia nauplii as food for larval pollack, Pollachius pollachius. Aquaculture, 212, 347-360.
Getha, K., Chong, V.C., Vikineswary, S., 1998. Potential use of the phototrophic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, as an aquaculture feed. Asian Fisheries Science, 10, 223-232.
Gilchrist, B.M., Green, J., 1960. The pigments of Artemia. Proceedings of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 152, 118-136.
Gomez-Gil, B., Abreu-Grobois, F.A., Romero-Jarero, J., de los Herrera-Vega, M., 1994. Chemical disinfection of Artemia nauplii. Journal of World Aquaculture Society, 25, 579-583.
Gu, Z., Chen, D., Han, Y., Chen, Z., Gu, F., 2008. Optimization of carotenoids from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 41, 1082-1088.
Guisnet, M., Gilson, J.-P., 2002. Introduction to zeolite science and technology. In: Guisnet, M., Gilson, J.-P. (Eds.), Catalytic Science Series, Vol. 3, Zeolites for Cleaner Technologies. Imperial College Press, London, 378 pp.
Han, K., Geurden, I., Sorgeloos, P., 2000. Enrichment strategies for Artemia using emulsions providing different levels of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids. Aquaculture, 183, 335-347.
Harel, M., Koven, W., Lein, I., Bar, Y., Behrens, P., Stubblefield, J., Zohar, Y., Place, A.R., 2002. Advanced DHA, EPA and ArA enrichment materials for marine aquaculture using single cell heterotrophs. Aquaculture, 213, 347-362.
Heasman, M., Diemar, J., O’Connor, W., Sushames, T., Foulkes, L., 2000. Development of extended shelflife micro-algae concentrate diets harvested by centrifugation for bivalve molluscs - a summary. Aquaculture Research, 31, 637-659.
Høj, L., Bourne, D.G., Hall, M.R., 2009. Localization, abundance and community structure of bacteria associated with Artemia: Effects of nauplii enrichment and antimicrobial treatment. Aquaculture, 293, 278-285.
Imhoff, J.F., 1992. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and general ecology of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. In: Carr, N.G., Mann, N.H. (Eds), Biotechnology Handbook: Photosynthetic prokaryotes, Plenum Press, London, New York, pp. 53-92.
Immanuel, G., Citarasu, T., Sivaram, V., Selva Shankar, V., Palavesam, A., 2007. Bioencapsulation strategy and highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) enrichment in Artemia franciscana nauplii by using marine trash fish Odonus niger liver oil. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(17), 2043-2053.
James, R., Sampath, K., Selvamani, P., 2000. Effect of Ion-Exchanging Agent, Zeolite on Removal of Copper in Water and Improvement of Growth in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). Asian Fisheries Science, 13, 317-325.
Joshi, P., Rayalu, S., Bansiwal, A., Juwarkar, A.A., 2007. Surface modified zeolite, a novel carrier material for Azobacter chroococcum. Plant Soil, 296, 151-158.
Khelifi, O., Kozuki, Y., Murakami, H., Kurata, K., Nishioka, M., 2002. Nutrients adsorption from seawater by new porous carrier made from zeolitized fly ash and slag. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 45, 311-315.
Knauer, J., Southgate, P.C., 1999. A review of the nutritional requirements of bivalves and the development of alternative and artificial diets for bivalve aquaculture. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 7, 241-280.
Kopsell, D.A., Kopsell, D.E., 2006. Review: Accumulation and bioavailability of dietary carotenoids in vegetable crops. Trends in Plant Science, 11(10), 499-507.
Krinsky, N.I., 1998. The antioxidant and biological properties of the carotenoids. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 854, 443-447.
Langdon, C., Önal, E., 1999. Replacement of living microalgae with spray-dried diets for the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Aquaculture, 180, 283-294.
Léger, P., Bengtson, D.A., Sorgeloos, P., Simpson, K.L., Beck, A.D., 1987. The nutritional value of Artemia: a review. In: Sorgeloos, P., Bengtson, D.A., Decleir, W., Jaspers, E. (Eds). Artemia Research and its Applications. Vol. 3. Ecology, Culturing, Use in aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium, 556 pp.
Leung, S., Barrington, S., Wan, Y., Zhao, X., El-Husseini, B., 2007. Zeolite (clinoptilolite) as feed additive to reduce manure mineral content. Bioresource Technology, 98, 3309-3316.
Lonin, A.Y., Krasnopyorova, A.P., 2007. Use of zeolites for decontamination of radioactively contaminated working surfaces. Problems of Atomic Science and Technology, 48, 122-125.
López-Ruiz, J.L., García, R.G., Soledad, M., Almeda, F., 1995. Short Communication, Marine Microalgae Culture: Chaetoceros gracilis with zeolitic product ZESTEC-56 and a commercial fertilizer as a nutrient. Aquacultural Engineering, 14(4), 367-372.
López-Torres, M.A., Lizárraga-Partida, M.L., 2001. Bacteria isolated on TCBS media associated with hatched Artemia cysts of commercial brands. Aquaculture, 194, 11-20.
Macías-Sánchez, M.D., Mantell, C., Rodríguez, M., Martínez de la Ossa, E., Lubián, L.M., Montero, O., 2005. Supercritical fluid extraction of carotenoids and chlorophyll a from Nannochloropsis gaditan. Journal of Food Engineering, 66, 245–251.
Madhu, K., 2009. Artemia: growth and reproduction, cysts decapsulation, hatching techniques and biomass production. CMFRI-Winter School Course Manual on “Recent Advances in Breeding and Larviculture of Marine Finfish and Shellfish”.
Marin, E.M., Velazquez, J.M., Dihora, J.O, Gonzalez, R.G., Saini, G., 2004. Delivery system having encapsulated porous carrier loaded with additives, particularly detergent additives such as perfumes. United States patent.
McCollum, F.T., Galyean, M.L., 1983. Effects of clinoptilolite on rumen fermentation, digestion and feedlot performance in beef steers fed high concentrate diets. Journal of animal science, 56(3), 517-524.
McEvoy, L.A., Navarro, J.C., Hontoria, F., Amat, F., Sargent, J.R., 1996. Two novel Artemia enrichment diets containing polar lipid. Aquaculture, 144, 339-352.
McEvoy, L.A., Navarro, J.C., Amat, F., Sargent, J.R., 1997. Application of soya phosphatidylcholine in tuna orbital oil enrichment emulsions for Artemia. Aquaculture International, 5, 517-526.
Mumpton, F.A., Fishman, P.H., 1977. The application of natural zeolites in animal science and aquaculture. Journal of Animal Science, 45(5), 1188-1203.
Navarro, J.C., Henderson, R.J., McEvoy, L.A., Bell, M.V., Amat, F., 1999. Lipid conversions during enrichment of Artemia. Aquaculture, 174(1-2), 155-166.
Needham, J., Needham, D.M., 1930. On phosphorus metabolism in embryonic life. Invertebrate eggs. Journal of Experimental Biology, 7, 317-348.
Nelis, H.J., De Leenheer, A.P., 1991. Microbial sources of carotenoid pigments used in foods and feeds, A Review. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 70, 181-191.
Newborn, J., 2009. Innovation: Waste not, want not…with natural dietary zeolite. Australian Organic Producer, Summer 2009-10, pp. 16-17.
Nieves, M., Voltolina, D., Medina, A., Piña, P., López Ruiz, J., 2002. Zeolites and diatom growth. Aquaculture Research, 33, 75-79.
Nieves, M., Voltolina, D., Piña, P., 2005. Growth and biomass production of Tetraselmis suecica and Dunaliella tertiolecta in a standard medium added with three products of zeolitic nature. Aquacultural Engineering, 32, 403-410.
Nordgreen, A., Hamre, K., Langdon, C., 2007. Development of lipid microbeads for delivery of lipid and water-soluble materials to Artemia. Aquaculture, 273(4), 614-623.
Nygaard, S., Wendelbo, R., Brown, S., 2002. Surface-specific zeolite binding proteins. Advanced Materials, 14(24), 1853-1856.
Obradović, S., Adamović, M., Vukašinović, M., Jovanović, R., Levic, J., 2006. The application effects of natural zeolite in feed and water on production results of Oncorhynchus Mykiss (Walbaum). Roumanian Biotechnological Letters, 11(6), 3005-3013.
Oğuz, H., Kurtoğlu, V., 2000. Effect of clinoptilolite on performace of broiler chickens during experimental aflatoxicosis. British Poultry Science, 41(4), 512–517.
Oliveira, C.d.R., Rubio, J., 2007. Adsorption of ions onto treated natural zeolite. Materials Research, 10(4), 407-412.
Ötles, S., Çagindi, Ö., 2008. Carotenoids as natural colorants. In: Socaciu, C., (Ed). Food Colorants: Chemical and Functional Properties, CRC Press, London, pp. 51-70.
Pan, C-H., Chien, Y-H., 2003. Effects of Dietary Astaxanthin on Body Astaxanthin, Growth, and Survival of Penaeus monodon Postlarvae. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 31, 269-280.
Pan, R.Y.L., You, J.-F., Caravajal, G.S., Graves, S.A., Mueller, W.R., 1997. Perfume delivery system comprising zeolites. United States Patent.
Petsalis, G., 2000. Enrichment emulsion for zooplankton organisms. European patent application.
Qi, Z., Zhang, X-H., Boon, N., Bossier, P., 2009. Probiotics in aquaculture of China – current state, problems and prospect. Aquaculture, 290, 15-21.
Ramesh, K., Biswas, A.K., Somasundaram, J., Subba Rao, A., 2010. Review article: Nanoporous zeolites in farming: current status and issues ahead. Current Science, 99, 760-764.
Reiss, G., Puppe, L., Hees, B., 1997. Adsorptive oxygen enrichment of air with mixtures of molecular sieve zeolites. United States Patent.
Reeve, M.R., 1963. The filter-feeding of Artemia. II. In suspensions of various particles. Journal of Experimental Biology, 40, 207-214.
Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B., 2001. A guide to carotenoid analysis in foods. ILSI Press, United States of America, 64 pp.
Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B., Kimura, M., 2004. HarvestPlus handbook for carotenoid analysis. HarvestPlus Technical Monograph 2, Washington DC, 58 pp.
Sachindra, N.M., Mahendrakar, N.S., 2005. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils. Bioresource Technology, 96, 1195-1200.
Sandmann, G., 1994. Review: Carotenoid biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants. European Journal of Biochemistry, 223(1), 7-24.
Shahidi, F., Metusalach, Brown, J.A., 1998. Carotenoid Pigments in seafoods and aquaculture. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 38(1), 1-67.
Sheta, A.S., Falatah, A.M., Al-Sewailem, M.S., Khaled, E.M., Sallam, A.S.H., 2003. Sorption characteristics of zinc and iron by natural zeolite and bentonite. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 61, 127-136.
Shoja, B., Ahmadi, A.R., Rafiee, F., Nejatkhah Manavi, P., 2012. Influence of probiotic yeast Phaffia rhodozyma on growth, survival and maturity of Artemia urmiana. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 3(2), 355-359.
Smith et al., 2002. Changes in gut content and composition of juvenile Artemia after oil enrichment and during starvation. Aquaculture, 208, 137-158.
Song, X., Zhang, X., Guo, N., Zhu, L., Kuang, C., 2007. Assessment of marine thraustochytrid Schizochytrium limacinum OUC88 for mariculture by enriched feeds. Fisheries Science, 73, 565-573.
Sorgeloos, P., Dhert, P., Candreva, P., 2001. Use of the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in marine fish larviculture. Aquaculture, 200, 147-159.
Suzer, C., Çoba, D., Kamaci, H.O., Saka, S., Firat, K., Otgucuoğlu, Ö., Küçüksari, H., 2008. Lactobacillus spp. bacteria as probiotics in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) larvae: Effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Aquaculture, 280, 140-145.
Tackaert, W., Camara, M.R., Sorgeloos, P., 1991. The effect of dietary phosphatidylcholine in postlarval penaeid shrimp. I. diet preparation. In: Lavens, P., Sorgeloos, P., Jaspers, E., Ollevier, F. (Eds). Larvi ’91 – Fish & Crustacean larviculture symposium. European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication No. 15, Gent, Belgium.
Teow, C.C., Truong, V.D., McFeeters, R.F., Thompson, R.L., Pecota, K.V., Yencho, G.C., 2007. Antioxidant activities, phenolic and β-carotene contents of sweet potato genotypes with varying flesh colours. Food Chemistry, 103, 829-838.
Tomizawa, T., et al., 2008. Molecular incorporation of benzoic acid and salicylic into BEA zeolites. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(6), 233-239.
Tonheim, S.K., Koven, W., Rønnestad, I., 2000. Enrichment of Artemia with free methionine. Aquaculture, 190, 223-235.
Trckova, M., Matlova, L., Dvorska, L., Pavlik, I., 2004. Review article: Kaolin, bentonite, and zeolites as feed supplements for animals: health advantages and risks. Journal Veterinarni Medicina, 49(10), 389-399.
Treece, G.D., 2000. Artemia production for marine larval fish culture. SRAC Publication No. 702.
van der Meeren, T., Olsen, R.E., Hamre, K., Fyhn, H.J., 2008. Biochemical composition of copepods for evaluation of feed quality in production of juvenile marine fish. Aquaculture, 274, 375-397.
Wang, Y.B., Li, J.R., Lin, J., 2008. Probiotics in aquaculture: Challenges and outlook. Aquaculture, 281, 1-4.
Yamasaki et al., 2007. Nutritional enrichment of larval fish feed with Thraustochytrid producing polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 104, 200-206.
Yeliseev, A.A., Kaplan, S., 1997. Anaerobic carotenoid biosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1: H2O is a source of oxygen for the 1-methoxy group of spheroidene but not for the 2-oxo group of spheroidenone. FEBS Letters, 403, 10-14.
Young, A.J., Lowe, G.M., 2001. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of carotenoids. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 385(1), 20-27.
Zhou, X-x., Pan, Y-j., Wang, Y-b., Li, W-f., 2007. In vitro assessment of gastrointestinal viability of two photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 8(9), 686-692.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top