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研究生:陳韋燕
研究生(外文):Hui-Yen Chin
論文名稱:肌肉專一性表現龍膽石斑生長激素在基因轉殖斑馬魚之功能性研究
論文名稱(外文):Functional Studies of Transgenic Zebrafish With Giant Grouper's Growth Hormone Specific Expression In Muscle
指導教授:龔紘毅
指導教授(外文):Hong-Yi Gong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:水產養殖學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:180
中文關鍵詞:基因轉殖斑馬魚龍膽石斑生長激素
外文關鍵詞:Transgenic zebrafishGiant grouperGrowth Hormone
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本研究成功建立肌肉專一性表現龍膽石斑生長激素基因轉殖斑馬魚用於研究賀爾蒙對於脊椎動物自分泌與旁分泌的影響。由其表現型與基因表現分析上顯示肌肉過量表現龍膽石斑生長激素對基因轉殖斑馬魚有促進生長的作用。龍膽石斑生長激素(GH)基因轉殖斑馬魚比野生型斑馬魚之體重增加92%,體長增加31%。此外在三個月大的龍膽石斑GH基因轉殖斑馬魚觀察到肌肉纖維肥大截面積增加39-76%,而且同時在表皮下的germinal layer新生肌肉細胞數變多。由此顯示外源性龍膽石斑生長激素作用促使斑馬魚肌肉細胞同時產生增生(hyperplasia)及變大(hypertrophy)。此與表現Pax 7之肌肉衛星細胞增加及進一步分化成新生肌肉細胞有關。由龍膽石斑生長激素基因轉殖斑馬魚受精後24小時胚胎表現Pax 7免疫螢光衛星細胞增加及兩個半月大Pax 7表現增加可進一步證實。基因轉殖魚GH調控分子機制方面,4個月大成魚母魚偏好使用STAT訊號路徑,公魚偏好使用NFκB 訊號路徑,而1個月大的小魚同時調控此兩個路徑。由microarray 數據顯示GH對膽固醇/異戊二烯的代謝、脂質降解、脂肪酸生合成及氧化、TCA循環與葡萄糖代謝均有正調控。GH調控成魚的TNF家族表現上升,但小魚卻調控下降。在成魚公母魚及小魚GH強弱不同表現之所有基因轉殖斑馬魚組別其ROS分解調控均上升與glutathione peroxidase表現增加一致。此外GH調控DHCR24基因與基因轉殖魚年紀有關,可提供與阿茲海默症的相關性。GH調控SCD增加證明脂肪酸的代謝增加。本研究建立之肌肉過量表現龍膽石斑生長激素對基因轉殖斑馬魚的影響,可提供一個生長激素在脊椎動物作用研究的新平台。
Muscle-specific transgenic zebrafish over expressing giant grouper’s growth hormone was established to study the autocrine and paracrine effect of this hormone in vertebrate system. Growth enhancement was observed in the transgenic zebrafish analyzed by phenotype and gene expression analysis. The transgenic zebrafish showed an increase in body weight up to 92% and total body length up to 31% as compared to control. In addition, hypertrophy was observed in the muscle myofibers with an increase from 39-76% in the myofiber area of 3-month old transgenic zebrafish. The adult transgenic zebrafish also exhibited stratified hyperplasia at the discrete germinal layer under the skin suggesting muscle growth due to the exogenous GH. It was suggested the muscle growth was correlated with the increase of satellite cells (Pax 7 positive). This was further validated by an increase in Pax 7 positive satellite cells at 24 hpf ElGH TG embryos and up-regulation of Pax7 in 2.5-month old TG zebrafish. The transgenic adult female prefer STAT signaling pathway while transgenic adult male prefer NFκB signaling. From our microarray data, the transgenic zebrafish showed an up regulation in cholesterol/isoprenoid metabolism, lipid degradation, fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and glucose metabolism. It was found that ROS catabolism was increased in all transgenic group with a concomitant rise in glutathione peroxidase. Apart from that, different regulation of DHCR24 gene was associated with the age of the transgenic fish which can provide a link for the Alzheimer’s disease. A direct evidence in the increase of SCD gene was observed indicating an increase in fatty acid metabolism. In conclusion, the effects of muscle-specific overexpression of giant grouper’s growth hormone in the transgenic zebrafish provide a platform for further vertebrate studies.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.......................................i
摘  要 ..............................................ii
ABSTRACT.............................................iii
ABBREVIATION..........................................iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS......................................v
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………..viii

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………………...ix

APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………ix

INTRODUCTION..........................................1
1.1. General Introduction..........................1
1.2. Rationale and Significance of Study...........2
1.3. Objectives of Study...........................3
LITERATURE REVIEW.....................................4
2.1. General overview of Epinephelus species..........4
2.2. Growth Hormone...................................5
2.2.1. Origin History and Evolution in Fish...........5
2.3. Structure and Organization of Growth Hormone in Fish..................................................6
2.4. Roles of GH......................................8
2.4.1. Growth.........................................8
2.4.2. Metabolism.....................................9
2.4.3. Osmoregulation................................10
2.4.4. Immune Functions..............................11
2.5. Growth Hormone Secretion Patterns and Signaling Mechanisms...........................................12
2.6. Animal Transgenesis.............................13
2.7. Zebrafish as animal model.......................14
2.8. Growth hormone transgenesis.....................15
2.9. Commercial application..........................17
MATERIALS & METHODS..................................18
3.1. MATERIALS....................................18
3.2 METHODOLOGIES................................34
A) FISH AND EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION...................34
B) MOLECULAR CLONING............................34
C) ESTABLISHMENT OF GIANT GROUPER’S GROWTH HORMONE TRANSGENIC ZEBRAFISH.................................47
D) PHENOTYPE ANALYSIS...........................52
E) GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS.....................52
F) BIOREACTOR...................................55
RESULTS..............................................64
A) FISH AND EXPERIMENTAL CONDITION..............64
B) MOLECULAR CLONING............................64
1. NUCLEOTIDE ALIGNMNENT OF CLONE TO ELGH SEQUENCES FROM NCBI GENEBANK (EU280321.1)......................64
2. CONSTRUCT DESIGN.............................65
C) ESTABLISHEMENT OF GIANT GROUPER’S GROWTH HORMONE TRANSGENIC ZEBRAFISH.................................65
1. TRANSIENT EMBRYONIC EXCISION ASSAY (TEEA)....65
2. GERMLINE TRANSMISSION........................66
D) PHENOTYPE ANALYSIS...........................66
1. BODY MEASUREMENTS & BEHAVIOURAL OBSERVATIONS.66
2. HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS........................67
E) GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS.....................68
1. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (qPCR).68
2. MICROARRAY....................................71
F) BIOREACTOR....................................73
1. EUKARYOTIC SYSTEM.............................73
2. PROKARYOTIC SYSTEM............................74
DISCUSSIONS...........................................75
A) ESTABLISHMENT OF GIANT GROUPER’S GROWTH HORMONE TRANSGENIC ZEBRAFISH..................................75
B) PHENOTYPE ANALYSIS............................76
1. BODY MEASUREMENTS & BEHAVIOURAL OBSERVATIONS..76
2. HISTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS.........................76
C) GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS......................77
1. QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (qPCR).77
2. MICROARRAY....................................82
D) BIOREACTOR....................................91
1. EUKARYOTIC SYSTEM.............................91
2. PROKARYOTIC SYSTEM............................92
CONCLUSION............................................93
REFERENCES............................................94
FIGURES AND TABLES...................................108
APPENDIX.............................................165

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