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研究生:振農
研究生(外文):Chairil Anwar
論文名稱:鮮度與幾丁聚醣對虱目魚魚漿品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of Freshness and Chitosan on the Quality of Milkfish Surimi
指導教授:曹欽玉蕭心怡蕭心怡引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Yu TsaoHsin-I Hsiao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:幾丁聚醣
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摘 要

本研究目的為探討鮮度與幾丁聚醣對虱目魚魚漿品質之影響。虱目魚為購自碧砂漁港漁市場,冰藏後迅速運回實驗室以防腐敗,虱目魚經去頭、尾及腹部後分成五部份分裝於塑膠袋中,並置於0℃冰中貯藏0、2、4和6天。另一方面,將含有不同冷凍保護劑的虱目魚魚漿,於-20oC下緩慢凍結並貯藏1、2和3個月。分析樣品的pH值、揮發性鹽基態氮、可抽出肌動凝蛋白含量和Ca2+-ATPase活性,並進一步添加不同比例幾丁聚醣(0%, 0.2% and 1%)及蔗糖(0% and 4%)製成煉製品,測其膠強度、保水力與顏色等。由結果得知,魚肉之pH值和揮發性鹽基態氮於0oC冰中冷藏期間些微上升,而肌動凝蛋白含量和Ca2+-ATPase活性則降低,即虱目魚鮮度已降低。另外,隨著貯藏期增加,煉製品膠強度和保水力皆降低,而顏色並無明顯改變;因此,虱目魚須於短時間內處理完。接著探討不同的抗凍劑之影響。根據 pH值、揮發性鹽基態氮、膠強度和Ca2+-ATPase 活性的結果,在添加4%蔗糖與0.2%幾丁聚醣組之魚漿品質可維持3個月;另外,其煉製品的保水力呈現降低但顏色無明顯改變。相較於控制組,各實驗組Ca2+ATPase活性和膠強度皆為高,但彼此間無明顯差異。總而言之,隨貯藏期延長會導致虱目魚漿品質降低,蛋白冷凍保護劑對冷凍貯藏3個月之虱目魚肌肉蛋白質是極為重要因素。此外,添加蛋白冷凍保護劑可抑制肌原纖維蛋白的變性。


Abstract
This study aims to investigate the effect of freshness and chitosan on the quality of milkfish surimi. Milkfish was bought from traditional fish markets and quickly transported to laboratory to avoid fish deterioration, and took the dorsal parts only then cut each into five parts, wrapped randomly in plastic bags. Fresh fish were well covered with ice and stored at 0oC for 0, 2, 4, and 6 days. Surimi was made from milkfish with various cryoprotectants were slowly freezed and stored at -20oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. The fish samples were analyzed for pH, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), extractable actomyosin, Ca2+-ATPase activity and then making kamaboko with 0.2% and 1% of chitosan, 4% sucrose, and mixed 4% sucrose/0.2% chitosan, respectively. The gel strength, water holding capacity and color were empolyed to determine the quality of kamaboko. The preliminary results show that pH, VBN slightly rise during ice storage, although the amount of actomyosin and Ca2+-ATPase activity tend to decrease during prolong storage. This indicates that the degree of freshness of the fish began to decline. Meantime, the gel strength, water holding capacity of kamaboko decreased. But the color was no significantly different among various chitosan concentrations. Therefore, it can be concluded that raw fish must be processed within 2 days. The main research is studying cryoprotectants effect on fish protein. After adding 4% sucrose and 0.2% chitosan, the surimi could maintain its quality after 3 months storage, from results of pH, VBN, gel strength, Ca2+-ATPase activity. However, water holding capacity decline, and color of kamaboko had no significant difference than other treatment groups. Comparing to control group, the Ca2+-ATPase activity and gel strength of each group milkfish surimi are higher (p<0.05) than those of control within the storage period, however all cryoprotectants treated groups are not significant different (p>0.05) each other. From this studies, it can be concluded that the longer storage the lower quality of surimi and the presence of cryoprotectants have important role to retain milkfish muscle during 3 months of frozen storage. Besides, addition of cryoprotectants can restrain the denature rate of myofibril protein.

Contents

List of Tables…. III
List of Figures.... IV
Abstract ………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………V
I. Introduction 1
II. Literature review 4
2.1. Fish muscle protein 4
2.1.1. Myofibrillar protein 4
2.1.2. Sarcoplasmic protein 5
2.2. Fish quality change 5
2.2.1. K-value 6
2.2.2. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) 7
2.2.3. Quality decay 8
2.2.4. Enzyme protease 9
2.2.5. Ice storage 9
2.2.6. Frozen storage 11
2.3. Surimi quality 12
2.3.1. History and development of surimi 13
2.3.2. Definition of surimi 15
2.3.3. Different fish species 16
2.3.4. Storage test 17
2.3.5. Influence of salt to surimi 19
2.3.6. Kamaboko 20
2.4. Cryoprotectants 22
2.4.1. Sucrose and sorbitol 23
2.4.2. Chitosan 24
III. Materials and methods 27
3.1. Materials 27
3.1.1. Raw materials 27
3.1.2. Chemicals 27
3.1.3. Instruments and Machines 28
3.2. Surimi preparation 28
3.2.1. Chemical Analysis of Surimi 29
3.2.1.1. Preparation of natural actomyosin and measurement of CA2+- ATPase activity natural actomyosin (NAM) 29
3.2.1.2. Volatile basic nitrogen 30
3.2.1.3. pH 31
3.3. Kamaboko preparation 31
3.3.1. Functional evaluation of kamaboko 31
3.3.1.1. Color 31
3.3.1.2. Texture analysis (gel strength) 32
3.3.1.3. Folding test 32
3.3.1.4. Water holding capacity (WHC) 33
3.4. Experimental design and statistical analysis 33
IV. Results and Discussions 35
4.1. Effect of freshness on the quality milkfish during storage 35
4.1.1. pH 35
4.1.2. Volatile basic nitrogen 36
4.1.3. Natural Actomyosin (NAM) 37
4.1.3. Ca2+ ATPase activity 38
4.2. Effect of raw milkfish freshness in ice storage on kamaboko quality 39
4.2.1. Water holding capacity (WHC) 39
4.2.1. Gel strength 41
4.2.2. Color 42
4.3. Effect of cryoprotectants on the quality of surimi during storage at -20oC 44
4.3.1. pH 44
4.3.2. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) 45
4.3.3. Protein surimi 46
4.3.4. Ca2+ATPase activity 47
4.3.5. Water holding capacity (WHC) 49
4.3.6. Gel strength 50
4.3.7. Folding test 52
4.3.8. Color 52
4.4. Research limitation 54
V. Conclusions.. 55
VI. References.. 56











List of Tables

Table 1. The quality changes of surimi from milkfish stored in ice 70
Table 2. Changes in color of kamaboko from milkfish stored in ice 71
Table 3. Functional properties of kamaboko from milkfish stored in ice 72
Table 4. Extractable actomyosin of milkfish surimi adding various cryoprotectants during frozen at -20oC 73
Table 5. Folding test of kamaboko made from milkfish adding with various cryoprotectants during frozen storage 74
Table 6. The L, a, b value and whiteness changes of milkfish kamaboko made from surimi with various cryoprotectants during storage at -20oC 75















List of Figures

Figure 1. Changes in pH of raw milkfish stored in ice. 75
Figure 2. Changes in volatile base nitrogen (VBN) of raw milkfish stored in ice. 77
Figure 3. Changes in Ca2+ATPase activity of raw milkfish stored in ice. 78
Figure 4. The changes pH of milkfish surimi adding different cryoprotectants during storage at -20oC 79
Figure 5. The volatile bases nitrogen changes of milkfish surimi with various cryoprotectants during storage at -20oC 80
Figure 6. Ca2+ATPase activity changes of milkfish surimi adding various cryoprotectants during storage at -20oC 81
Figure 7. WHC changes kamaboko made from milkfish surimi adding various cryoprotectants during storage at -20oC 82
Figure 8. The gel strength changes of milkfish surimi with various cryoprotectants during storage at -20oC 83


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