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研究生:王健銘
研究生(外文):Jian-Ming Wang
論文名稱:添加茶葉對釀造醬油品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of adding tea on the quality of soy sauce
指導教授:曹欽玉
指導教授(外文):Ching-Yu Tsao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:醬油黃豆烏龍茶兒茶素
外文關鍵詞:soy saucesoy beansOolong teacatechin
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本實驗以脫脂黃豆片與高山凍頂烏龍茶葉為主材料,分別依不同釀造方式,對釀造1~10個月期間的醬油,改善醬油的高鈉、鹹感及機能性,也是傳統釀造業想開發的技術。實驗結果顯示添加茶葉醬油的NaCl、Be’、Brix含量,在醱酵30天數值為最高,但隨著釀造時間天數的增加而降低後穩定變化不大。pH以醱酵到30天的值最高,在60天有下降但隨著90天以上,pH值會有變化,但180天以後數值會穩定變化不大。總氮(TN)含量以醱酵120天數值最高,但也隨著釀造時間天數的增加而降低後穩定變化不大,在醬油醪裡添加烏龍茶茶葉在醱酵30天兒茶素含量是最高,但隨著釀造醱酵時間天數的增加,而逐漸減少甚至完全消失。由以上實驗結果顯示添加茶葉釀造出的醬油與市售醬油差異不大,但在風味上改善了原本醬油的高鹽度及獨特的茶香味,開發出新穎的醬油產品。
The defatted soybean and Oolong tea produced from higher mountain was used in the studies. According to different brewing ways, the sauce was further aging fermentation for 10 months to improve the high sodium content, too salty and having functions of the soy tea sauce, the new technique of traditional fermentation industries. The results show that when the soy sauce with tea was fermented 30 days, the content of NaCl, Be’, Brix were the highest, and then became stable during aging fermentation. The pH value was the highest when fermented 30 days and decreased when fermented 60 days; it changed after 90 days, but didn’t change too much after 180 days. TN was the highest when fermented 120 days, but it also became stable during aging fermentation. Adding Oolong tea in soy sauce mash and fermented 30 days, the value of catechin was the highest, but it decreased and then completely disappeared during aging fermentation. As for sensory evaluation, the color, flavor, taste, and overall fondness of tea soy sauce are close to the commercial soy sauce. According to the results, brewing soy sauce with tea doesn’t make lots of differences. However, it’s not too salty and also spraying the aroma from tea. It might be a new development technique of soy sauce.
目錄
中文摘要.....................................................................................................Ⅰ
英文摘要.....................................................................................................Ⅱ
目錄.............................................................................................................Ⅲ
圖索引.........................................................................................................Ⅷ
表索引.........................................................................................................Ⅹ
壹、前言........................................................................................................1
貳、文獻整理................................................................................................4
一、 醬油的原料..............................................................................4
(一)、茶葉的介紹.............................................................................4
1、茶葉的來源與分析..............................................................4
2、茶葉的組成..........................................................................5
3、茶葉製成的化學變化.........................................................6
4、兒茶素類之機能性介紹.....................................................6
(1)、抗氧化活性.....................................................................6
(2)、抗菌性.............................................................................7
(二)、黃豆的介紹.............................................................................7
1、黃豆的介紹.........................................................................7
2、黃豆的成分.........................................................................8
3、黃豆的蛋白質......................................................................8
4、黃豆的脂質.........................................................................9
5、黃豆的碳水化合物.............................................................9
6、黃豆的機能性成分.............................................................9
(1)、預防癌症.......................................................................11
(2)、降低心血管疾病...........................................................11
(3)、預防骨質疏鬆...............................................................11
(4)、減緩婦女更年期症候群...............................................11
(三)、小麥的介紹...........................................................................12
1、小麥的介紹........................................................................12
2、小麥的蛋白質....................................................................12
3、小麥的碳水化合物............................................................12
(四)、菌種.......................................................................................12
1、麴菌的介紹.......................................................................13
2、麴菌的功能........................................................................13
(五)、食鹽.......................................................................................13
1、食鹽的介紹.......................................................................13
二、 醬油的製造過程....................................................................15
(一)、黃豆浸水蒸煮.....................................................................15
(二)、小麥之培炒...........................................................................15
(三)、製麴培養...............................................................................16
(四)、醱酵.......................................................................................16
(五)、醬醪通氣攪拌.......................................................................16
(六)、壓榨.......................................................................................17
(七)、醬液.......................................................................................17
三、 醬油的香氣............................................................................17
參、材料與方法
一、 實驗架構................................................................................19
二、 實驗材料................................................................................20
三、 實驗儀器與藥品....................................................................20
(一)、儀器.....................................................................................20
(二)、藥品.....................................................................................21
四、 實驗方法................................................................................21
(一)、純釀醬油及茶釀醬油釀造製造流程.................................21
1、黃豆片醬油之釀造...........................................................21
2、黃豆片加茶葉醬油之釀造...............................................22
(二)、純釀醬油及茶釀醬油釀造過程一般成分分析...................23
1、比重之測定.......................................................................23
2、食鹽之測定........................................................................23
3、總氮之測定........................................................................23
4、甲醛態氮之測定................................................................24
5、pH值之測定......................................................................24
6、Brix之測定.......................................................................25
7、色澤之分析........................................................................25
8、Be’(波美)之分析...............................................................25
9、兒茶素含量之分析............................................................25
10、醬油樣品之官能品評......................................................26
肆、結果與討論...........................................................................................27
一、純釀醬油及茶釀醬油釀造過程一般成分分析..................................27
(一)、以脫脂黃豆釀造醱酵醬油及添加烏龍茶葉釀造醱酵醬油...........27
1、NaCl值之變化................................................................................27
2、pH 值之變化..................................................................................27
3、Be’值之變化...................................................................................28
4、Brix 值之變化................................................................................28
5、TN之變化...................................................................................... 28
二、茶葉成分之檢量製作..........................................................................29
(一)、兒茶素之檢量製作............................................................................29
1、兒茶素之含量變化........................................................................29
三、醬油樣品之官能品評...........................................................................29
伍、結論.......................................................................................................31
陸、參考文獻...............................................................................................60
圖索引
圖1、用於醱酵之小陶甕............................................................................32
圖2、脫脂黃豆小麥組與黃豆小麥茶葉組在醬油釀造期間NaCl之變化.................................................................................................................33
圖3、脫脂黃豆小麥組與黃豆小麥茶葉組在醬油釀造期間 pH 之變化.................................................................................................................34
圖4、脫脂黃豆小麥組與黃豆小麥茶葉組在醬油釀造期間 Be’ 之變化.................................................................................................................35
圖5、脫脂黃豆小麥組與黃豆小麥茶葉組在醬油釀造期間Brix之變化.................................................................................................................36
圖6、脫脂黃豆小麥組與黃豆小麥茶葉組在醬油釀造期間TN之變化.................................................................................................................37
圖7、以HPLC製作兒茶素衍生物之檢量線.............................................38
圖、8兒茶素和表兒茶素的HPLC。(A)未添加烏龍茶茶葉醱酵醬油醪 (B)標準品的兒茶素和兒茶素.........................................................................39
圖、9兒茶素和表兒茶素的HPLC。(A)添加烏龍茶茶葉醱酵30天醬油醪 (B)標準品的兒茶素和表兒茶素..........................................................40
圖10、烏龍茶茶葉添加至醬油中醱酵兒茶素含量之變化......................41
附圖11-1、台灣整體調味品產值:2005~2009年.......................................42
附圖11-2、台灣醬油產值與產量:2005~2009年......................................42
附圖11-3、台灣醬油進口值與出口值:2005~2009年..............................42
附圖11-4、消費者對各項調味品之偏好程...............................................43
附圖12、鹽水製備......................................................................................44
附圖13、醬油的製造過程..........................................................................15
附圖14、NK桶(蒸煮桶)..............................................................................44
附圖15、炒麥機..........................................................................................44
附圖16、機器製麴(蒸煮後脫脂豆片混合添加初碎小麥及種麴)............45
附圖17、麴與鹽水混合醱酵......................................................................45
附圖18、醬醪通氣攪拌..............................................................................45
附圖19、包豆醬機及自動壓榨機..............................................................46
附圖20、醬油醪 (生醬液) 120噸、80頓儲存桶........................................46

表索引
表1、脫脂黃豆片小麥醬油於醱酵過程中一般成分分析........................47
表2、脫脂黃豆片小麥茶葉醬油於醱酵過程中一般成分分析................48
表3、醬油樣品之官能品評........................................................................49
附表4、不同時期採摘的茶葉名稱............................................................50
附表5、各種茶葉的製造方法....................................................................51
附表6、各種茶的特色................................................................................52
附表7、茶一般成分分析( % 乾重)...........................................................53
附表8、茶葉發酵與一般食品醱酵之區別................................................54
附表9、兒茶素機能性能............................................................................55
附表10、兒茶素對食物中毒細菌、乳酸菌、雙叉乳酸桿菌的抗菌作用..56
附表11、黃豆各部分之化學組成(%)........................................................57
附表12、黃豆各部分的碳水化合物..........................................................58
附表13、小麥各部分之一般分析(無水物換算)........................................59

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