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研究生:黃哲葦
研究生(外文):Che-Wei Huang
論文名稱:探討調查宜蘭大溪漁船漁獲大型甲殼類群聚結構之合適實驗設計及當地漁場的群聚變動研究
論文名稱(外文):Experimental design in studying the community structure of mega-crustaceans collected by the deep-sea fishing boats in Dasi and the dynamic of the mega-crustacean community structure in the fishing ground there
指導教授:陳天任陳天任引用關係陳國勤陳國勤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tin-Yam ChanK. K. Benny Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:大溪大型甲殼類生物多樣性稀有種群聚結構實驗設計
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本研究以宜蘭大溪漁港為實驗地點,密集採樣調查漁獲物以了解龜山島海域之深海大型甲殼類多樣性,希望藉此提供在生物多樣性高的海域以調查漁船漁獲物研究種類組成時之實驗設計參考。本研究將採集時間分為較冷季和較熱季共3個時段進行100次的採樣,每次採樣時間於下午1:30-4:00,期間間隔不超過3個工作天,共採獲55科150屬285種大型甲殼類。在較熱季需40次採樣,較冷季需26次才各具代表性,亦發現冷熱兩季所採獲的種類組成有很大不同,熱季比冷季多採獲67種,而冷季卻有43種是在熱季所未採獲過。本研究與六年前以類似調查方法的研究比較,發現採獲物種組成在冷熱季上的差異性較四季來的明顯,其中夏季(6-8月)的採獲物種組成在四季中屬於獨立的一群,應是採樣的重點。其中將兩研究數據整合,發現稀有種佔全部的69.07%。再對自1981年至今在宜蘭大溪漁港採獲的種類(共74科216屬443種)進行比對,發現在ANOSIM, CLUSTER和nMDS下,皆能以2000年為分界點,形成兩大群物種組成,且在軌跡圖的趨勢下可看到該海域的群聚結構可能正隨著環境壓力而不斷地在變化。在SIMPER下,2000年前後的物種組成結構也有優勢物種消長的情形。在Taxonomic distinctness中,顯示出隨著時間的更迭,物種種類數雖有上升,但組成結構的複雜度卻相對趨於單調化。將兩研究整合與自1981年至今的標本進行比對,近年的採樣只達68.85%的種類,加上本研究的採集中有高達61.05%的稀有種,顯示稀有種的多寡是對調查了解高生物多樣性區域的種類相有重大的影響。
The present study used the catches of mega-crustaceans from the commercial fishing boats in the deep-sea fishing port Dasi to investigate the appropriate experimental design needed to understand the community structure of a high deep-sea biodiversity area. Extensive collections were conducted in three time periods with hot and cold seasons. Altogether 100 collecting events were conducted, with each collecting event last from 1:30pm to 4:00 pm and not interrupted for more than three working days of the fishing boats there. A total of 55 families, 150 genera and 285 species mega-crustaceans have been collected. Representative sampling was only achieved after 40 times of collecting events in hot season and 26 times was needed in cold season. Moreover, there are significant differences in the species compositions between the cold and hot seasons. Comparison with the data from previous studies in the catches of Dasi fishing boats backed to 1981 showed that altogether 74 families, 216 genera and 443 species of mega-crustaceans are known from there. Furthermore, catches during summer are most important in understanding the species composition there. ANOSIM, CLUSTER and nMDS analyses all suggested that the community structure can be divided into two main groups by the year 2000. Trajectory graph revealed that the mega-crustacean community structure is changing with fishing pressure, and marked difference in dominant species were observed before and after the year 2000 from SIMPER analysis. Analysis of taxonomic distinctness showed that the number of species increased with time but with the complexity in community structure becoming more simple. The present results demonstrated again that rare species play a key factor in the understanding of the community structure in areas with high biodiversity.
謝辭 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
一、前言 1
二、材料與方法 8
1. 宜蘭大溪漁港漁獲物的調查 8
1.1 採樣時間、地點和方法 8
1.2 樣本的處理及鑑定 9
1.3 採獲種類組成、移動平均值及累計採獲曲線 9
1.4 採獲頻率分析 10
2. 比較1981-2012年龜山島漁場大型甲殼類之消長 10
2.1. 不同時期之標本檢視 10
2.2. 以Primer 6分析各時段之變化 11
三、結果 13
1. 2011/2/14-2011/3/29之採樣 13
1.1 採樣物種種類之組成 13
1.2 物種之採獲頻率 13
1.3 代表性之採集次數 13
2. 2011/6/27-2011/9/30之採樣 14
2.1 採樣物種種類之組成 14
2.2 物種之採獲頻率 15
2.3 代表性之採集次數 15
3. 2011/11/1-2012/1/18之採樣 16
3.1 採樣物種種類之組成 16
3.2 物種之採獲頻率 17
3.3 代表性之採集次數 17
4. 綜合三時段的採樣 18
4.1 採樣物種種類之組成 18
4.2 物種之採獲頻率 18
5. 稀有種類採獲時段之分析 18
6. 與2004-2005年間之前的調查比較 19
7. 宜蘭大溪漁場大型甲殼類族群結構之消長 21
8. 於1981-2012年間採獲種類之比較 23
四、討論 25
1. 龜山島漁場大型甲殼類的多樣性結構及採獲頻率之探討 25
2. 在生物多樣性調查中具代表性的採樣方法及次數探討 26
3. 以漁獲物調查區域物種多樣性的探討 29
4. 龜山島漁場大型甲殼類可能的群聚變動現象之探討 30
五、參考文獻 33

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