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研究生:費莉絲
研究生(外文):Felica Alicia Cruz
論文名稱:臺灣鯨鯊(Rhincodon typus)生態旅遊可行性研究
論文名稱(外文):A feasibility study of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus) ecotourism in Taiwan
指導教授:莊守正莊守正引用關係劉光明劉光明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shoou Jeng JoungKwang Ming Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:環境生物與漁業科學學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:鯨鯊可行性研究生態旅遊熱點出現季節
外文關鍵詞:Whale sharksfeasibility studyecotourismhot-spotsseasonal occurrence
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二十一世紀初期台灣被認為是全球大量漁獲利用鯨鯊的國家之一,2008年台灣政府主管當局公告全面禁止在其臨近水域漁獲鯨鯊的行為,並持續與保育團體合作針對該受威脅物種進行保育及貿易監控。另一方面,一些已往漁獲利用鯨鯊的國家如今都逐漸朝向鯨鯊生態旅遊業發展。本研究針對鯨鯊在台灣地區發展成生態旅遊業的可能性進行初步SWOT分析,並蒐集2001-2008年間定置網的漁獲資料,以及標識放流、單位努力漁獲(CPUE)情形資料,並2009年間的標識放流資料,嘗試找尋鯨鯊在台灣周邊水域出現的熱點(hot-spot)。結果顯示,澎湖及屏東兩地擁有較高的潛力發展成鯨鯊生態旅遊區,不但該兩地擁有最高的CPUE,並且水深均低於60米以深,根據鯨鯊出現的季節判斷3-6月間應是從事該項活動的最佳季節,同時SST資料也顯示此一期間為適合鯨鯊來游之水溫(澎湖:21-27oC;屏東:25-27oC)。該兩地也擁有完善的交通(包括陸運及空中運輸)、住宿及餐飲設施,以及一些已經既有的在該地經營的旅遊活動。2011年針對澎湖及屏東兩地的遊客及業者所進行的訪調結果顯示,多數的遊客及定置網業者都對鯨鯊生態旅遊活動的推動樂觀其成,其中以18-30歲的年齡層興趣最高,願意支付的金額則是澎湖及屏東兩地分別為新台幣2900-4000元及2890-3930元。整體而言,澎湖及屏東兩地具備了環境、社會及自然的條件來發展鯨鯊生態旅遊事業。然而,這個事業的發展能否成功仍有賴一個適當的管理架構及監控體系,而遊客、業者、管理單位、官方及非官方團體間的合作是最為關鍵的。
In the early 2000s, Taiwan was regarded as one of the largest whale shark fishing countries in the world. In 2008, a legal ban was declared by the Taiwanese Government ceasing the harvesting of whale sharks within Taiwanese waters, and maintained compliance with other international organization’s mandate on the conservation and monitored trade of this endangered species. Alternatively, some countries that fished for whale sharks have now developed whale shark ecotourism. This study is a feasibility study for whale shark ecotourism in Taiwan. Strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) analysis, set net landing, catch and release and catch per unit effort (CPUE) data from 2001 to 2008, and tagging data from 2009 were used to identify and select ‘hot-spots’ from the west coast of Taiwan. As a result, Penghu (PH) and Pingtung (PT) which have the highest potential for the development of whale shark ecotourism in Taiwan were selected. Additionally, PH and PT also had the highest CPUE and a sea depth of less than 60m for both, which are favorable conditions for the development of whale shark ecotourism. Furthermore, March to June was the best season for this activity based on the seasonal occurrence of whale sharks, where the sea surface temperature falls within the estimated ranged suitable for whale shark occurrence, from 21-27oC in PH and 25-27oC in PT during March to June (2009). Both locations also contain easily accessible land and air transportation, numerous lodging and dining facilities, and other established tourism activities adding to the suitability of these areas. A questionnaire for tourists visiting and set net operators fishing in PH and PT was distributed during June 2011 and demonstrated that majority of the tourists and set net operators welcomed whale shark ecotourism in their respective areas. The target group identified were Taiwanese between 18 to 30 years and the mean price that they are willing to pay for snorkeling and diving with the whale shark are NT$2,900 and $NT4,000 in PT and NT$2,890 and NT$3,930 in PH, respectively. In conclusion, PH and PT have the mentioned environmental, social and physical conditions necessary for the development of whale shark ecotourism in Taiwan. However, the revision and modification of the current whale shark monitoring system, a strategic management framework, the participation and collaboration between stakeholders, Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) should be achieved in order to successfully establish this highly lucrative water-based activity.
Abstract (Chinese) - 1

Abstract - 3

Chapter 1: Introduction - 5
1. 1 Biology and ecology of whale sharks - 5
1. 2 Whale shark utilization in Taiwan- 8
1. 3 Whale shark ecotourism- 11
1. 4 Motivation - 17
1. 5 Objectives- 18

Chapter 2: Materials and Methods - 19
2. 1 Site selection and season - 19
2. 1. 1 SWOT Analysis - 19
2. 1. 2 Landing, catch and release, tagging data and CPUE- 21
2. 2 Market Analysis - 24
2. 2. 1 Questionnaire design - 24
2. 2. 2 Questionnaire distributions- 25
2. 3 Data input and analysis - 26

Chapter 3: Results - 28
3. 1 Site selection and season - 28
3. 1. 1 SWOT results - 28
3. 1. 2 Landing, catch and release, tagging and CPUE results- 31
3. 2 Questionnaire results- 33
3.2. 1 Results from tourists- 33
3. 2. 1. 1 General background information- 33
3. 2. 1. 2 Knowledge and interest- 34
3. 2. 1. 3 Willing to pay- 35
3. 2. 1. 4 Related interest and reflection- 36
3. 2. 2 Results from set net operators- 37
3. 2. 2. 1 Knowledge and interest- 38
3. 2. 2. 2 Willing to charge- 38
3. 2. 2. 3 Related interest and reflection- 39

Chapter 4: Discussion - 40
4. 1 Suitable hot-spots for whale shark ecotourism- 40
4. 2 Best determined season for whale shark ecotourism- 43
4. 3 Stakeholder’s feedback- 44
4. 4 Whale shark ecotourism potential- 46
4. 5 Considerations- 52

Chapter 5: Conclusion - 60

Acknowledgements - 62

References - 64

Tables - 74

Figures - 79

Appendix I - 99

Appendix II- 102

List of Tables

Table 1.Whale shark landing, catch and release data from 2001 to 2008 illustrating whale shark hot-spots and seasonal occurrence -74
Table 2. Whale shark tagging data from 2009 illustrating whale shark hot-spots and seasonal occurrence-74
Table 3. Comparison between landing, catch and release data from 2001-2008 and tagging data for 2009 against respective regions- 75
Table 4. Regional distribution of set nets against whale shark landing, catch and release data and CPUE from 2001 to 2008-75
Table 5. The tourist’s knowledge and interest about whale sharks-76
Table 6.The tourists’ response for activities with whale sharks showing the preferred mean price of willing to pay-77
Table 7.Tourists’ response to the related interest and reflection on whale shark ecotourism-78

List of Figures

Figure 1.Whale shark ecotourism snorkeling activity, scuba diving activity, and onboard observation activity-79
Figure 2.Small scale map of set net distributed in Taiwanese coastal waters- 80
Figure 3. Set net diagram in Pingtung- 80
Figure 4. Small scale map of Pingtung and Zhu Keng Port-81
Figure 5. Small scale map of Penghu and Suo Gang Port-82
Figure 6.Set net location in Pingtung. Images of Zhu Keng Port; shore beside Zhu Keng Port; set net near Zhu Keng Port; and whale shark swimming in the set net near Zhu Keng Port- 83
Figure 7. Set net location in Penghu. Images of Suo Gang Port; shore beside Suo Gang Port; set net location near Suo Gang Port; and set net operators pulling in the set net at Suo Gang Port-84
Figure 8. SWOT analysis of East Taiwan for whale shark ecotourism-85
Figure 9. SWOT analysis of North West Taiwan for whale shark ecotourism - 86
Figure 10. SWOT analysis of South West Taiwan for whale shark ecotourism - 87
Figure 11. Large scale regional map of Taiwan’s topography and bathymetry - 88
Figure 12. Zoomed regional bathymetric map of Taiwan’s South Western Coast (PT and PH)- 89
Figure 13. Monthly mean of sea surface temperature (SST) from (a) East Taiwan and (b) Northwest Taiwan in 2009 - 90
Figure 14. Monthly mean of sea surface temperature (SST) from (a) Pingtung and (b) Penghu in 2009 - 91
Figure 15. Depth distribution of (a) WS025 and its 6-hour periodic movement and of (b) WS112 and its 4-hour periodic movement- 92
Figure 16. Images of questionnaire distribution and tourists’ participation in Pingtung and Penghu; dive shop in Pingtung and dive shop in Penghu -93
Figure 17. Gender of tourists that visited Pingtung and Penghu -94
Figure 18. Type of tourists (domestic or international) that visited Pingtung and Penghu-94
Figure 19. Region where tourists that visited Pingtung and Penghu came from- 95
Figure 20. Age range of those tourists that visited Pingtung and Penghu-95
Figure 21. Occupation of the tourists that visited Pingtung and Penghu-96
Figure 22. Sources tourists used to discover Pingtung and Penghu- 96
Figure 23. Tourists’ general purpose of visit Pingtung and Penghu- 97
Figure 24.Tourists that visited Pingtung and Penghu interests and abilities- 97
Figure 25. Western Australia Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) Code of Conduct for Whale Shark tourism operations- 98



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