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研究生:林妙修
研究生(外文):Lin, Miaohsiu
論文名稱:運用意識提升英語文法教學於國小外語:文法學習之效益研究
論文名稱(外文):Using Consciousness-Raising Grammar Teaching in EFL Elementary English Class: Effects on English Grammar Learning
指導教授:張秀穗張秀穗引用關係
口試委員:張鑑如簡雅臻
口試日期:2012-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:兒童英語教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:165
中文關鍵詞:意識提升意識提升文法教學文法教學文法學習
外文關鍵詞:consciousness-raisingconsciousness-raising grammar teachinggrammar teachinggrammar learning
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本研究探究意識提升文法教學對臺灣小六學生英語未來式句型的文法學習成效。本研究之研究問題有三:第一,意識提升文法教學(實驗組)與未進行意識提升文法教學(控制組),何者對學生文法學習成效較佳?第二,意識提升文法教學與未進行意識提升文法教學,何者對高、低分組學生文法學習成效較佳?第三,實驗組學生對意識提升文法教學活動之看法為何?
  研究者以所任教之臺北市某一公立國小120位六年級學生為研究對象,進行八週,每週兩次教學實驗。實驗分兩組,實驗組進行意識提升文法教學,控制組不進行意識提升文法教學。實驗教學前一週,所有實驗對象接受「自編英語成就測驗」前測,實驗教學後,接受「自編英語成就測驗」後測,前測與後測題目相同,用以檢驗學生於實驗前、後對目標句型的熟悉程度。實驗教學後,對實驗組研究對象施以意識提升文法教學問卷,以了解其對意識提升文法教學活動的看法。
  本研究研究結果如下:經實驗教學後,意識提升文法教學及未進行意識提升文法教學的方式,對英語未來式句型之學習皆具學習成效。實驗組與控制組之後測成績相當。實驗組高分組與控制組高分組後測成績相當。實驗組低分組之後測成績優於控制組低分組。實驗組低分組前後測比較,進步成績明顯多於實驗組高分組。問卷部份,所有意識提升文法教學活動皆獲實驗組學生肯定。
  研究者依研究結果提出以下建議:教學方面,教學者於教導低成就者,或補救教學時,可採用意識提升文法教學活動,增加學生注意到目標句型的機會。就後續研究方面,建議研究對象的取樣以未參加課外英語補習之學生為主、延長研究時間、採用不同句型、聽說讀寫四項能力均予檢驗,以達到全面性了解意識提升文法教學之成效。

This study aimed to investigate the comparative effects of consciousness-raising and non-consciousness-raising grammar teaching on EFL elementary school students’ learning of the English future tense. This study was guided by three research questions. First, which was better for students to learn English grammar, consciousness-raising or non-consciousness-raising grammar teaching? Second, which was better for the high-level students and low-level students to learn English grammar, consciousness-raising or non-consciousness-raising? Third, how did participants view consciousness-raising tasks?
120 Taipei city students participated in the experiment for 8 weeks, twice a week. The participants were randomly assigned to two different treatments, consciousness-raising tasks and non-consciousness-raising tasks. The experimental group received consciousness-raising grammar teaching, while the control group didn’t receive any consciousness-raising grammar teaching.
The pretest was conducted one week before instruction and the posttest was conducted after the experiment teaching to measure the effects of different teaching methods. After the posttest, participants in the experimental group responded to question items on a questionnaire concerning the consciousness-raising grammar teaching.
The results were as follows: First, all participants improved significantly in the posttest as compared to the pretest. There were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups in the posttest. Second, for the high-level students, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups in the posttest. Third, the low-level students in the experimental group outperformed those in the control group in the posttest. Fourth, the low-level students in the experimental group made significant progress in the posttest, while the high-level students in the experimental group yielded no significant differences. Fifth, the participants in the experimental group had positive thoughts on consciousness-raising tasks and thought consciousness-raising tasks improved their English learning of the target structures.
Based on the findings and results, the researcher suggested that English teachers apply consciousness-raising grammar teaching in the courses, especially to low-level students or for remedial instruction to raise their consciousness on the target structure. Future researchers may exclude students attending after-school cram school English classes. Experimental teaching may be extended longer to see the long-lasting effects of consciousness-raising tasks. Further, future studies may investigate the effects of consciousness-raising grammar teaching of other linguistic structures in English. Moreover, other researchers may test participants’ overall performance on listening, speaking, reading and writing.

目次
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………ii
目次…………………………………………………………………………………...iv
表次………………………………………………………………………………….vii
圖次…………………………………………………………………………………...ix
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………………1
第一節 研究背景與動機…………………………………………………………1
第二節 研究目的與研究問題……………………………………………………4
第三節 本研究之重要性…………………………………………………………5
第四節 名詞釋義…………………………………………………………………6
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………………………………9
第一節 文法在語言教學上的角色………………………………………………9
第二節 文法教學…………………………………………………………………14
第三節 意識提升文法教學………………………………………………………19
第四節 意識提升文法教學相關實證研究………………………………………29
第三章 研究設計與實施…………………………………………………………..43
第一節 研究架構與設計…………………………………………………………43
第二節 研究對象…………………………………………………………………44
第三節 實驗教學設計……………………………………………………………45
第四節 研究工具與計分方式……………………………………………………52
第五節 資料收集…………………………………………………………………59
第六節 資料分析…………………………………………………………………61
第四章 研究結果與討論…………………………………………………………..63
第一節 英語學習經驗問卷統計結果……………………………………………63
第二節 實驗分組結果……………………………………………………………65
第三節 實驗組與控制組英語文法教學成效比較………………………………68
第四節 實驗組高分組與控制組高分組英語文法教學成效比較………………70
第五節 實驗組低分組與控制組低分組英語文法教學成效比較………………72
第六節 實驗組高分組與實驗組低分組進步成績比較…………………………75
第七節 測驗成績綜合討論………………………………………………………76
第八節 實驗組對於意識提升文法教學之看法…………………………………81
第五章 研究結論與建議…………………………………………………………101
第一節 研究結論………………………………………………………………101
第二節 研究限制………………………………………………………………104
第三節 研究建議………………………………………………………………..105

參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………109
中文部份……………………………………………………………………………109
英文部份……………………………………………………………………………110

附錄
附錄一 國內外意識提升文法教學相關研究之綜合整理………………………119
附錄二 教材內容一覽表(一)……………………………………………………121
附錄三 教材內容一覽表(二)……………………………………………………122
附錄四 教材內容一覽表(三)……………………………………………………124
附錄五 學習單—句子正誤判斷練習(1)………………………………………….127
附錄六 學習單—句子正誤判斷練習(2)…...……………………………………129
附錄七 學習單-句子改錯練習…………………………………………………131
附錄八 學習單-句型互換練習…………………………………………………132
附錄九 學習單—will及be going to互換練習……………………………………133
附錄十 教案設計…………………………………………………………………..134
附錄十一 CYLET聽力及閱讀寫作能力測驗簡介(Movers中級)……………148
附錄十二 劍橋兒童英檢中級聽力試題…………………………………………149
附錄十三 劍橋兒童英檢中級聽力文稿…………………………………………151
附錄十四 劍橋兒童英檢中級閱讀與寫作試題…………………………………154
附錄十五 英語學習經驗問卷……………………………………………………158
附錄十六 英語學習成就測驗前、後測試題……………………………………159
附錄十七 意識提升文法教學問卷………………………………………………163


表次
表3-1 教學內容與教材表…………………………………………………………..48
表3-2 實證研究後測題型一覽表…………………………………………………..55
表3-3 研究問題、研究工具及資料分析對照表……………………………………62
表4-1 英語學習經驗調查結果……………………………………………………..65
表4-2 五個班級CYLET答對題數…………………………………………………66
表4-3 五個班級CYLET成績之Levene變異數均質性檢定結果………………66
表4-4 實驗組與控制組CYLET答對題數比較……………………………………67
表4-5 實驗組與控制組「自編英語成就測驗」前測成績比較……………………68
表4-6 實驗組與控制組「自編英語成就測驗」後測成績比較……………………69
表4-7 實驗組與控制組單組前後測成績摘要表…………………………………..69
表4-8 實驗組高分組與控制組高分組「自編英語成就測驗」前測成績比較……..70
表4-9 實驗組高分組與控制組高分組「自編英語成就測驗」後測成績比較……..71
表4-10 實驗組高分組與控制組高分組單組前後測成績摘要表…………………72
表4-11實驗組低分組與控制組低分組「自編英語成就測驗」前測成績比較……73
表4-12實驗組低分組與控制組低分組「自編英語成就測驗」後測成績比較……73
表4-13 實驗組低分組與控制組低分組單組前後測成績摘要表…………………74
表4-14 實驗組高分組與實驗組低分組單組前後測成績摘要表…………………75
表4-15 實驗組高分組與實驗組低分組「自編英語成就測驗」進步成績比較……76
表4-16意識提升文法教學問卷第一部份各題平均得分…………………………82
表4-17 「自己找出句型規則」回應分布情形………………………………………84
表4-18 「和小組或同伴討論句型規則」回應分布情形……………………………86
表4-19 「用螢光筆標示關鍵字」回應分布情形……………………………………88
表4-20 「句子改錯練習」回應分布情形……………………………………………90
表4-21 「由老師直接教導句型規則」回應分布情形………………………………92
表4-22 意識提升文法教學問卷第二部份調查結果………………………………93



圖次
圖2-1 文法架構圖…………………………………………………………………14
圖3-1 研究架構圖…………………………………………………………………44
圖3-2 研究流程圖…………………………………………………………………47
圖4-1 實驗組與控制組CYLET答對題數分佈圖………………………………..67

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高遠(2007)。增強語法意識,加強語法教學──談大學英語語法教學。外語界,123,15-24。
教育部(2001)。國民中小學九年一貫暫行綱要。
教育部(2003)。國民中小學九年一貫課程綱要。中華民國 95年 3月 10日台國(二)字0950030031C號令修正國民中小學九年一貫課程綱要語文學習領域(英語)(小學三年級)
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梁玉玲(2009)。語用意識增強任務模式在語法教學中的應用。兵團教育學院學報,19,44-47。
葉小寶(2009)。中學英語教學中應該提升哪些語法意識。課程教材教法,29,54-58。
黃怡俐(2006)。外語教學與理論實踐。中國河南省:河南大學出版社。
詹餘靜(2000)。國小英語教育發展趨勢及三「教」-教師、教材與教法-相關問題研究。國立臺北師範學院學報,13,203-238。
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