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研究生:陳欣怡
研究生(外文):Chen, Hsinyi
論文名稱:中英文構詞覺知與台灣國小學生英語拼字及讀字的相關探討
論文名稱(外文):The Role of L1 and L2 Morphological Awareness in L2 Word Spelling and Reading for Taiwanese Elementary School EFL Learners
指導教授:陳淑惠陳淑惠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Shuhui
口試委員:詹餘靜賴維菁
口試委員(外文):Chan, YuchingLai, Weijing
口試日期:2012-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:兒童英語教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:第一語言構詞覺知第二語言構詞覺知第二語言拼字第二語言讀字
外文關鍵詞:L1 morphological awarenessL2 morphological awarenessL2 word spellingL2 word readingTaiwanese EFL children
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過去研究指出構詞覺知在兒童早期讀寫發展扮演重要角色,然而,不同研究認為對雙語使用者來說,第一語言和第二語言的構詞覺知之間的相關程度及與第二語言的拼字及讀字的相關程度,取決於兩種語言結構的不同。有鑑於中文與英文類型不同,本研究檢視第一語言與第二語言構詞覺知相關程度及與第二語言的拼字及讀字的相關程度,以台灣小學中英語為外國語言的學生為研究對象,並以其英語程度分為高成就組及低成就組分別做探討。

根據標準化英語成就測驗,研究者從一百二十位國小學生中選出六十四位參與者,並被分為高成就組及低成就組各三十二人。參與者接受中文構詞覺知測驗、英文構詞覺知測驗、英文拼字測驗及英文讀字測驗,並用皮爾森相關分析及逐步迴歸來分析資料。

本研究結果有以下幾點重要發現,首先,由於中文與英文構詞結構的不同,第一語言的構詞覺知與第二語言的構詞覺知並不相關。第二,不論是高成就組或低成就組,第一語言構詞覺知及第二語言拼字及讀字並無顯著正相關。第三,對低成就組來說,第二語言構詞覺知和第二語言拼字及讀字呈現高度相關;對高成就組來說,第二語言構詞覺知雖與第二語言拼字高度相關,卻與第二語言讀字不相關。此外,第二語言構詞覺知雖然可以預測低成就組的第二語言的拼字及讀字表現,但只能預測高成就組的第二語言拼字表現。

研究結論指出,對台灣國小以英語為外語的學習者來說,英文構詞覺知對其英文拼字及讀字扮演重要角色,尤其是對低成就學生而言。因此,老師在英語教學時融入第二語言構詞覺知教學將有助加強學生的第二語言構詞覺知,並且有益學生第二語言拼字及讀字,特別是對低成就組學生。

Previous studies have indicated that morphological awareness may play a role in children’s early literacy development. However, there are diverging findings as to the extent to which L1 and L2 morphological awareness are related in bilinguals’ literacy development, and the extent to which each is related to L2 word spelling and L2 word reading. In view of typological difference between Mandarin Chinese and English, this study intends to examine the extent to which L1 and L2 morphological awareness are correlated, and the extent to which each is related to L2 word spelling and L2 word reading in Taiwanese elementary school EFL students, with lower and higher English proficiency levels.

On the basis of a standardized English Proficiency Test, 64 participants selected from a sample pool of 120 elementary school students were divided into the lower and the higher proficient group, each with 32 students. The participants took Chinese morphological awareness test, English morphological awareness test, English word spelling test, and English word reading test. Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise regression were conducted to analyze the data.

The results indicated that due to the differences in the morphological structures between Mandarin Chinese and English, L1 morphological awareness is not significantly correlated with L2 morphological awareness. Second, no significant positive relationship was observed between L1 morphological awareness and L2 word spelling and reading in both groups. Third, L2 morphological awareness was significantly highly correlated with L2 word spelling and with reading in the lower proficient group. For the higher proficient group, L2 morphological awareness was highly correlated with L2 word spelling, but not with L2 word reading. Moreover, L2 morphological awareness can predict both L2 word spelling and reading performance in the lower proficient group, but predict only L2 word spelling performance in the higher proficient group.

To conclude, the finding suggested that English morphological awareness plays an important role in English word spelling and reading for Taiwanese EFL elementary school students, especially for the lower proficient students. Therefore, integrating L2 morphological awareness instruction into English teaching will help enhance L2 morphological awareness, and, in turn, facilitate L2 word spelling and reading during early stages of L2 literacy development.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Motivation………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 Purpose of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
1.3 Definitions of Terms………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………8
1.4 Significance of Study………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………9
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 L1 Morphological Awareness and L2 Morphological Awareness……………13
2.2 Previous Studies on the Role of Morphological Awareness in English Word Spelling…………………………………………………………………………………17
2.3 Previous Studies on the Role of Morphological Awareness in English Word Reading…………………………………………………………………………………20
2.4 Cross-linguistic Comparison of the Writing System between Mandarin Chinese and English………………………………………………………………………23
CHAPTER 3 METHOD
3.1 Participants………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………27
3.2 Measures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………28
3.2.1 English Proficiency Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………28
3.2.2 Chinese Morphological Awareness Test……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
3.2.3 English Morphological Awareness Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………31
3.2.4 English Word Spelling Test……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………34
3.2.5 English Word Reading Test……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………36
3.3 Procedures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………37
3.4 Scoring System……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………38
3.4.1 Scoring in Chinese Morphological Awareness Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………38
3.4.2 Scoring in English Morphological Awareness Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………39
3.4.3 Scoring in English Word Spelling Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………41
3.4.4 Scoring in English Word Reading Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………42
3.5 Data Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………42
CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Means and Standard Deviations for Study Measures………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………45
4.2 The Correlation between L1 Morphological Awareness and L2 Morphological Awareness……………………………………………………………………………49
4.3 The Correlation of L1 Morphological Awareness in L2 Word Spelling and Reading……………………………………………………………………………………54
4.4 The Correlation of L2 Morphological Awareness in L2 Word Spelling and Reading……………………………………………………………………………………57
4.5 The Predictive Power of L1 and L2 Morphological Awareness on L2 Word Spelling and Reading……………………………………………………………………66
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS
5.1 Conclusions………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………73
5.2 Implications and Suggestions for Future Research…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………74
References………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………77
Appendix
A. Chinese Morphological Awareness Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………89
B. English Morphological Awareness Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………92
C. English Word Spelling Test………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………98
D. English Word Reading Test……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………100


List of Tables

Table 4.1.1 Means and Standard Deviations for Study Measures………………………………………………………………………………………………………………46
Table 4.2.1 The Correlation between CMAT and EMAT in the Lower and the Higher Proficient Group……………………………………………………………………50
Table 4.2.2 The Correlation between Each Pair of Components of CMAT and EMAT in the Lower and the Higher Proficient Group…………………………………51
Table 4.3.1 The Correlation between CMAT and EWST, as well as between CMAT and EWRT in the Lower and the Higher Proficient Group………………………54
Table 4.3.2 The Correlation between Each Pair of Components of CMAT and EWST in the Lower and the Higher Proficient Group…………………………………55
Table 4.3.3 The Correlation between Each Pair of Components of CMAT and EWRT in the Lower and the Higher Proficient Group…………………………………56
Table 4.4.1 The Correlation between EMAT and EWST, as well as between EMAT and EWRT in the Lower and the Higher Proficient Group………………………58
Table 4.4.2 The Correlation between Each Pair of Components of EMAT and EWST in the Lower Proficient Group……………………………………………………61
Table 4.4.3 The Correlation between Each Pair of Components of EMAT and EWRT in the Lower Proficient Group……………………………………………………62
Table 4.4.4 The Correlation between Each Pair of Components of EMAT and EWST in the Higher Proficient Group……………………………………………………65
Table 4.4.5 The Correlation between Each Pair of Components of EMAT and EWRT in the Higher Proficient Group……………………………………………………66
Table 4.5.1 Stepwise Regression Model for L2 Word Spelling by the Lower Proficient Group………………………………………………………………………………68
Table 4.5.2 Stepwise Regression Model for L2 Word Spelling by the Higher Proficient Group………………………………………………………………………………68
Table 4.5.3 Stepwise Regression Model for L2 Word Reading by the Lower Proficient Group………………………………………………………………………………69
Table 4.5.4 Summary of Correlation Results in the Lower Proficient Group……………………………………………………………………………………………………71
Table 4.5.5 Summary of Correlation Results in the Higher Proficient Group……………………………………………………………………………………………………72
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