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研究生:傅譯萱
研究生(外文):Fu,Yisyuan
論文名稱:透過文字情境與視覺情境對字彙學習成效之研究
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Vocabulary Learning Through Written Context-Based and Visual Context-Based Exercises
指導教授:簡雅臻簡雅臻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien, Yachen
口試委員:詹餘靜張秀穗
口試委員(外文):Chan, YuchingChang, Hsiu-sui
口試日期:2012-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:兒童英語教育學系碩士班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:書寫情境與視覺情境
外文關鍵詞:context and vocabulary learning
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字彙一向被視為語言學習的主要核心因素,字彙量多寡更是決定學習者英文程度高下的因素之一。本研究採用英語繪本來探究兩種不同的閱讀後字彙練習方法對學習者字彙學習的影響。實驗組採用文字情境字彙練習法,對照組使用視覺情境字彙練習法。
文字情境字彙練習法應用不同上下文情境,讓學習者從句意中培養對單字的使用情境認識,進而達到字彙拼字與字義的學習。視覺情境字彙練習法則是應用將抽象字彙以圖片方式展現,讓學習者產生對單字意義的聯想並聯結到單字的學習。
本研究施測對象為新北市某國小五年級的六個班級學生,實施前後測結果發現兩組學生皆達到顯著進步,但兩組間並沒有顯著差異。進一步就兩組內英文高成就與低成就學生學習成果進行比較,也沒有發現顯著差異。但在施測中有一項產出型字彙施測,發現文字情境組分數顯著高於視覺情境組。 本研究發現就台灣英語初學習而言,上下文文字情境使用要具備足夠的英文能力,不僅要了解字義,更要了解句子結構與句意,才能應用文字情境練習增進字彙學習。就一般學習者而言,視覺情境字彙學習可以直接提供兩種訊息輸入: 視覺圖像訊息,以及文字訊息。兩種訊息的輸入讓字彙學習更有效率,尤其適合英語初學者在學習單字時,運用此學習策略。

Vocabulary learning has been perceived as a core element of language learning, and vocabulary size plays a crucial role differentiating learners' diversified proficiency levels. This study used story books to explore the effects of two types of post-reading word instruction on word learning: word instruction in context--- the written context- based exercises, and word instruction in visual clue---the visual context- based exercises as the control group.
Six intact classes of fifth graders at an elementary school in New Taipei city participated in this study. A pre-and posttest design was chosen to evaluate the effects. The findings indicated that both instruction benefited vocabulary learning with statistically significant differences, but there was no significant differences between the control group and the experimental group in terms of their vocabulary gains. However, students in the written context-based group performed significantly better on the productive part of the posttest. High and low English achievers in the control and experimental groups were also compared and no significant difference was found. The implication is that for beginning EFL learners, the hints of meaning inferring offered by written context can only be acquired when learners possess abundant vocabulary knowledge not just in meaning and form, but also in syntax and overall language knowledge. For most EFL beginning learners, visual context serves as a direct and efficient learning input, which echoes with the dual coding theory claiming that combination of image and verbal encoding facilitate learning more effectively and efficiently.

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 1
INTRODUCTION 1
Background 1
Research Purposes 5
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 7
Definition of Terms 7
Written context-based exercises 7
Visual context-based exercises 8
High English achievers 8
Low English achievers 8
CHAPTER 2 9
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
Incidental Learning or Direct Word Teaching 9
Vocabulary Acquisition 11
Word learning in isolation 11
Word learning in context 12
Importance of Context for EFL Vocabulary Learning 15
Types of Context-Based Knowledge 16
Linguistic knowledge 17
World knowledge 18
Strategic knowledge 18
The Value of L2 Vocabulary Written Exercises 18
Written Context- Based Exercises 19
Visual Context-Based Exercises 21
Vocabulary Learning of Learners with Differentiated Language Proficiency 23
CHAPTER 3 25
METHODOLOGY 25
Research Design 25
Participants 28
Teaching Procedure 28
The experimental group 32
The control group 33
Instrument 33
Pretest 34
Posttest 35
Written context-based exercise 37
Visual context-based exercise 39
Picture books used in this study 40
Target word selection 41
Definition of target words 43
Data Analysis 43
CHAPTER FOUR 44
RESULTS 44
Research Question One 45
1st book reading 45
2nd book reading 46
Research Question Two 46
1st book reading 46
2nd book reading 47

Research Question Three 48
1st book reading 48
2nd book reading 49
Research Question Four 50
1st book reading 50
2nd book reading 51
Research Question Five 52
1st book reading 52
2nd book reading 53
CHAPTER FIVE 55
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 55
Research Questions One and Two 55
Research Question Three 57
Research Questions Four and Five 61
Conclusion 63
Pedagogical Implications 65
Limitations and Suggestions for Future Studies 67
References 69
Appendixes 77
Appendix A. Cambridge Young Learners English Tests 77
Appendix B. Pretest for Can You Cuddle Like a Koala 82
Appendix C. Content of the 1st Book Reading 84
Appendix D. Written Context-Based Exercise Can You Cuddle Like a Koala 85
Appendix E. Visual Context-Based Exercise Can You Cuddle Like a Koala 87
Appendix F. Sentences for Can You Cuddle Like a Koala 89
Appendix G. Pretest for Mr Gumpy’s Outing 91
Appendix H. Content of the 2nd Book Reading 93
Appendix I. Written Context-Based Exercise Mr Gumpy’s Outing 95
Appendix J. Visual Context- Based Exercise Mr Gumpy’s Outing 97
Appendix K. Sentences for Mr Gumpy’s Outing 99
Appendix L. Lesson Plan 101
Appendix M. Posttest: Can You Cuddle Like a Koala 104
Appendix N. Posttest: Mr Gumpy’s Outing 106
Appendix O. Discussion 1and 2 108
Appendix P. Discussion 3 109
Appendix Q. Discussion 4 and 5 110


List of Tables
Table 1 Teaching Procedure by Meeting……………………………………29
Table 2 Word Analysis for Book 1: Can You Cuddle Like a Koala..............42
Table 3 Word Analysis for Book 2: Mr Gumpy’s Outing..............................42
Table 4 Mean Scores of Pretests and Posttests for Book 1and Book 2 reading ..............................................................................................44
Table 5 Vocabulary Gains before and after the Treatment in the Control
Group for the 1st Book Reading…………………………………….45
Table 6 Vocabulary Gains before and after the Treatment in the Control Group for the 2nd Book Reading…………………………………………...46
Table 7 Vocabulary Gains before and after the Treatment in the Experimental Group for the 1st Book Reading…………………………………… 47
Table 8 Vocabulary Gains before and after the Treatment in the Experimental Group for the 2nd Book Reading…………………………………... 47
Table 9 One-Way ANCOVA Comparing the Word Gains in the Two Groups for the 1st Book Reading………………………………………………..48
Table 10 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for 5 Parts of Posttest for Two Groups in Book 1 Reading………………………………………….49
Table 11 One-Way ANCOVA Comparing the Word Gains in the Two Groups for the 2nd Book Reading……………………………………………….49
Table 12 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects for 5 Parts of Posttest for Two Groups for the 2nd Book Reading…………………………………..50
Table 13 One-Way ANCOVA Comparing the Word Gains of High English Achievers in the Two Groups for the 1st Book Reading…………...51
Table 14 One-Way ANCOVA Comparing the Word Gains of High English Achievers in the Two Groups for the 2nd Book Reading………..... 52
Table 15 One-Way ANCOVA Comparing the Word Gains of Low English Achievers in the Two Groups for the 1st Book Reading……………53
Table 16 One-Way ANCOVA Comparing the Word Gains of Low English Achievers in the Two Groups for the 2nd Book Reading…………..54

List of Figures
Figure 1 The dual-coding theory……………………………………………..22
Figure 2 The pictorial framework of the research design……………………26
Figure 3 Research flow chart………………………………………………...27

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