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研究生:蔡佳穎
研究生(外文):Cai, Jia-Ying
論文名稱:以互動手繪軌跡為基礎的色鉛筆畫產生方法
論文名稱(外文):A Novel Colored Pencil-Drawing Generating Method Based on Interactive Scribe
指導教授:王學武王學武引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang, Hsueh-Wu
口試委員:范丙林陳圳卿
口試委員(外文):Fan, Ping-LinChen, Chun-Ching
口試日期:2012-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北教育大學
系所名稱:數位科技設計學系(含玩具與遊戲設計碩士班)
學門:電算機學門
學類:軟體發展學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:45
中文關鍵詞:色鉛筆畫非擬真算圖影線繪製
外文關鍵詞:Colored Pencil-DrawingNon-Photorealistic RenderingHatching
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模擬鉛筆畫是非擬真算圖(Non-Photorealistic Rendering)中的重要研究領域,現有的研究多為直接擷取原輸入圖像的色彩資訊來做轉換,本研究的主要目的為提出一個與使用者互動的色鉛筆畫上色系統。根據原圖的色相資訊,以 K-mean 對影像進行分割,並保留原圖的亮度與飽和度作為色鉛筆畫的上色基礎。本系統提供多個顏色讓使用者著色,依據使用者畫線方向與分割所產生的區塊,參考原始影像中的亮度與飽和度的變化,貼上合適的鉛筆紋理(texture),以產生所需要的色鉛筆畫效果。
為了讓使用者能方便修改,本系統提供橡皮擦的刪除功能來抹去前一次塗抹效果,此外還提供明暗變化調整的功能,使用者同樣是以畫線的方式,來改變相對應區域內的明暗變化。實驗結果顯示,本系統能讓使用者透過幾個簡單的步驟畫出色鉛筆畫,並可協助小朋友或是繪畫技巧較差的使用者快速畫出效果不錯的色鉛筆畫。

Simulative Pencil-Drawing is the one of important field in Non-Photorealistic Rendering. The most studies are focus on the transformation of derived original image colors directly in recent years. The aim of this paper is presenting a Colored Pencil-Drawing Generating Method which can interact with users. First of all, the study is based on the information of original image. It use K-mean to segment photo; in the same time, original image keeps brightness and color saturation for painting foundation. This system supplies many kinds of colors for using. It's based on users’ scribing direction and Segmented block. Furthermore, users can refer to changes of brightness and color saturation in the original image and then paste suitable pencil texture so that creating different Colored Pencil-Drawing effect as users wanted.
In order to make users revising more convenient, this system provides the deleting function which similar to eraser to erase the former drawing. Otherwise, it has adjusting brightness function as well. Through drawing lines, users can change the corresponding area’s brightness. The experiment result indicates that this system makes users could draw pencil drawing by some simple procedures. Moreover, this system helps the children or unskilled users to draw the Colored Pencil-Drawing more effective.

中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
表目錄 iv
圖目錄 v
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第三節 研究範圍與限制 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 非擬真算圖(Non-Photorealistic Rendering) 4
第二節 鉛筆畫相關研究 7
一、灰階鉛筆畫 7
二、彩色鉛筆畫 12
第三節 現有的軟體分析 17
第三章 研究方法 20
第一節 邊緣偵測擷取 23
第二節 影像分割 25
第三節 鉛筆筆觸紋理 27
第四節 使用者互動功能 29
一、著色 29
二、橡皮擦 29
三、亮度變化 30
第四章 實驗成果與分析 31
第一節 互動操作方式 31
第二節 色鉛筆畫效果 37
第五章 結論與未來發展 41
參考文獻 42


中文文獻:

吳孟修(2009)。多圖層色鉛筆濾鏡效果之研究(碩士論文)。 取自http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dnclcdr&s=id=%22096NTPTC787014%22.&searchmode=basic
楊明貴(2006)。一種創新的色鉛筆畫作風格轉換技術(碩士論文)。 取自http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dnclcdr&s=id=%22094NCTU5394052%22.&searchmode=basic
鄭貴綾(2009)。非寫實性描繪技術:彩色鉛筆風格之模擬(碩士論文)。 取自http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dnclcdr&s=id=%22097NDHU5392062%22.&searchmode=basic
魏德樂(2005)。中國山水畫山石皴法合成技術之研究(博士論文)。 取自http://ndltd.ncl.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dnclcdr&s=id=%22094NCTU5394013%22.&searchmode=basic

英文文獻:
Cabral, B., & Leedom, L. C. (1993). Imaging vector fields using line integral convolution. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 20th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques.
Canny, J. (1986). A Computational Approach to Edge Detection. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on, PAMI-8(6), 679-698.
Gonzalez, R. C., & Woods, R. E. (2008). Digital image processing (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Green, S., Salesin, D., Schofield, S., Hertzmann, A., Litwinowicz, P., Gooch, A., et al. (1999). Non-photorealistic rendering. SIGGRAPH Non-Photorealistic Rendering Course Notes.
Kang, H., Lee, S., & Chui, C. K. (2007). Coherent Line Drawing. Npar 2007: 5th International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering, Proceedings, 43-50.
Kwon, Y., & Min, K. (2011). Texture-Based Pencil Drawings from Pictures
Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology. In G. Lee, D. Howard & D. Ślęzak (Eds.), (Vol. 206, pp. 70-77): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Lee, H., Kwon, S., & Lee, S. (2006). Real-time pencil rendering. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on Non-photorealistic animation and rendering.
Levin, A., Lischinski, D., & Weiss, Y. (2004). Colorization using optimization. ACM Trans. Graph., 23(3), 689-694.
MacQueen, J. (1967). Some methods for classification and analysis of multivariate observations. Paper presented at the Proceedings of 5th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability.
Mao, X., Nagasaka, Y., & Imamiya, A. (2002). Automatic generation of pencil drawing using LIC. Paper presented at the ACM SIGGRAPH 2002 conference abstracts and applications.

Meng, M., Zhao, M., & Zhu, S.-C. (2010). Artistic paper-cut of human portraits. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the international conference on Multimedia.
Salisbury, M. P., Anderson, S. E., Barzel, R., & Salesin, D. H. (1994). Interactive pen-and-ink illustration. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 21st annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques.
Winkenbach, G., & Salesin, D. H. (1994). Computer-generated pen-and-ink illustration. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 21st annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques.
Xie, D.-E., Xuan, Y., & Zhang, Z. (2010). A Colored Pencil-Drawing Generating Method Based on Interactive Colorization. 166-169.
Yamamoto, S., Mao, X., & Imamiya, A. (2004). Colored Pencil Filter with Custom Colors. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Computer Graphics and Applications, 12th Pacific Conference.
Zeng, K., Zhao, M., Xiong, C., & Zhu, S.-C. (2009). From image parsing to painterly rendering. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 29(1), 1-11.

網路資料:
Aura SoftWare(2011). Sketch Agent Pro. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/sketch-agent-pro/id412564974?mt=8
H. Rock Liao(2011a). Pencil Sketch Color. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/pencil-sketch-color/id431494831?mt=8
H. Rock Liao(2011b). Photo to Crayon HD Lite. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/photo-to-crayon-hd-lite/id458822166?mt=8
H. Rock Liao(2011c). Soft Sketch. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/soft-sketch/id427412071?mt=8
John MacTaggart(2011). Artyfactory. Retrieved July 16, 2012, from http://www.artyfactory.com/pen_and_ink_drawing/ink_drawing/pen_and_ink_drawing_6.htm
K SOLUTION LLC(2011). Fast Sketch. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/id309456700?mt=8&ign-mpt=uo%3D6
Miinu(2012). My Sketch. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/my-sketch/id448162988?mt=8
Raysoft Co. (2011). Hello Color Pencil. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/hello-color-pencil/id439922101?mt=8
Studio Mee(2011). SketchMee. Retrieved March 12, 2012, from http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/sketchmee/id319652474?mt=8

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