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研究生:藍逸之
研究生(外文):Lan, I-Chih
論文名稱:新自由主義下的香港治理─空間、再尺度化與制度策略
論文名稱(外文):Governing Neoliberal Hong Kong: Space, Scale, and Strategy
指導教授:陳小紅陳小紅引用關係李承嘉李承嘉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Hsiao-Hung NancyLee, Chen-Jai
口試委員:姜蘭虹周志龍金家禾洪啟東陳小紅李承嘉
口試委員(外文):Chiang, Lan-Hung NoraChou, Tsu-LungChing, Chia-HoHung, Chi-TungChen, Hsiao-Hung NancyLee, Chen-Jai
口試日期:2012-07-16
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺北大學
系所名稱:不動產與城鄉環境學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:338
中文關鍵詞:新自由主義城市空間策略選擇機制危機管理的危機積極不干預主義多重尺度
外文關鍵詞:neoliberal citymechanism of spatial strategic selectivitycrisis of crisis managementpositive non-interventionismmulti-scalar
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由於香港戰後至今在空間基體、制度基盤及治理策略上產生、有別於其他亞太主要城市的特殊性,使其新自由主義城市形構表現出微妙的都市經驗。對於回歸後香港特區政府的都市治理困境,近年已有許多文獻作出討論。相對於既有文獻立場,本研究旨在以新馬克思主義空間政治經濟提供一個替選視角,探討1997回歸後香港都市治理為社會各界持續批評的治理亂象,並特別將關注重點放在新自由化都市危機,及港府充作危機管理模式的城市規劃體制及鉅型計畫項目。藉由重新回顧殖民時期奠定的「積極不干預主義」,本研究指出,此一政府態度並非新自由經濟擁護者讚揚的自由放任措施,而是基於戰後特定政經情勢下,為了平衡金融、商貿(英資主導)及工業(華資主導)間的雙軌資本積累體制,由港英政府選擇性干預的社會調節模式。早期,特殊的經濟空間治理格局得以在政府的選擇性政略下取得合法性,並使香港於1990年代新自由主義空間中搶佔具有全球城市競爭力的地緣經濟位置,日後更企圖在一國兩制原則下謹守穩固過去經濟成就的制度優勢。然而,回歸後香港在新自由化路徑中面對內、外部空間尺度上多變的地緣政經動態,回歸前的這套空間策略選擇機制已無法充分支援多元空間生產與尺度建構的需要。觀察新興的空間尺度關係,並反省回歸後訴求多重尺度時空接合的代表性規劃案例,本研究根據其引發的空間爭議申論─原先為該模式服務的規劃體制及鉅型計畫項目仍延續既有空間策略選擇途徑,此乃1997後港府在新自由化都市危機中無法充分發揮危機管理效能的基本原因,並將各種空間爭議惡化轉為「危機管理的危機」。
Among the Asia-Pacific major cities, Hong Kong is peculiar because of its specific spatial matrix, institutional infrastructure, and governance strategy, which have made the global city-state represent the interesting urban experience behind its neoliberal city formation. There has been abundant works exploring the dilemma of urban governance in the post-97 Hong Kong. Unlike these works, the thesis attempts to provide an alternative approach based on Neo-Marxian political economy of space to illustrate the governance chaos criticized by the masses of the post-97 Hong Kong society. It especially focuses on the neoliberal urban crisis and the urban planning system and mega-projects taken by the Hong Kong government as the measures of crisis management. By means of reviewing the “positive non-interventionism” underpinned in the colonial era, the thesis indicates that the attitude of government is not the laissez-faire principle espoused by neoliberal economists but the mode of social regulation through selective state intervention to stabilize the dual track accumulation regime between the British capital-led commercial and the Chinese capital-led manufacturing sectors in the specific circumstances of postwar geopolitical economy. In the early days, the specific context of spatial economic governance helped the colonial state acquire the legitimacy through strategic selectivity and promoted Hong Kong to establish its prominent position of global city system in the post-1990 era of neoliberalism. After its sovereign return in 1997, Hong Kong Government attempts to maintain the colonial institutional advantage under the “One Country, Two Systems” framework. However, facing the multi-scalar socio-spatial dynamic from the outer and inner environments in the post-97 era, the mechanism of spatial strategic selectivity is “outdated” today because it has not been able to meet the needs from the divergent values of spatial production and complex game of scalar construction. Observing the emerging forces of spatial rescaling and related planning cases, the thesis argues that the spatial contestations behind these cases result from the outdated mechanism of spatial strategic selectivity, which can not only effectively mitigate the neoliberal urban crisis but exacerbate the chaos into the “crisis of crisis management”.
謝詞
論文提要
章節目錄 I
圖目錄 III
照片目錄 V
表目錄 VI
第一章 緒論─香港,一個地緣政經交疊的新自由地景? 1
第一節 研究緣起與問題意識 1
第二節 回歸後香港的空間發展及其爭議 5
第三節 研究場域、分析取向與研究方法 16
第四節 研究議題及主要論點 24
第五節 研究內容 31
第二章 文獻回顧、對話與評析 35
第一節 資本積累的地理、危機與空間修補 35
第二節 新自由國家與企業型新都市政治 46
第三節 尺度政治經濟、新國家空間及其策略選擇機制 73
第四節 核心命題與主張─新自由主義城市的治理困境 95
第三章 自由放任的全球城邦?香港的新自由化、地緣政經變遷及全球城市-區域再結構 104
第一節 戰後~中國改革開放─構築於自由之名的經濟起飛 106
第二節 中國改革開放~香港回歸─大中華經濟圈的中繼站 111
第三節 1997主權回歸─日不落帝國的日落邊境與倚龍為首的亞洲國際都會 119
第四節 從自由港到全球城市-區域─香港新自由化路徑的地理意涵 136
第四章 積極不干預的新自由主義城市形構─親商都市治理聯盟及危機管理途徑 146
第一節 轉型中的都市治理聯盟及其社會經濟變遷 147
第二節 親商環境、都市危機及空間修補的再尺度化 165
第三節 積極不干預─新自由積累體制與調節模式的香港版本 184
第五章 治理亂象、空間爭議與過時的空間策略選擇機制 226
第一節 在爭議中想像的亞洲國際都會─鉅型計畫與在地抵抗 227
第二節 中國/全球香港─區域協調策略與城際競爭的空間尺度大戰 258
第三節 危機管理的危機─空間策略選擇機制、新自由都市危機管理及其限制 280
第六章 結論 298
第一節 研究成果 298
第二節 研究意涵與總結 301
第三節 後續研究建議 310

參考文獻 312
附件一 三次田野調查受訪者編碼 336

圖目錄

圖1-1 大中華經濟圈中香港-珠三角城市-區域的地緣位置及其時空接合關係圖 7
圖1-2 泛珠三角9+2區域成員 12
圖1-3 香港、澳門及珠三角城市群地緣位置關係圖 16
圖1-4 本研究標的及其概念框架 19
圖1-5 本研究三層次分析取向 21
圖1-6 國家空間的再尺度化、領域修補及空間選擇性間之關係 25
圖1-7 本研究內容及其概念框架 34
圖2-1 資本迴路及過剩資本的循環與轉換關係 37
圖2-2 資本在流動與固著間內部的地理矛盾與不均發展模式 40
圖2-3 空間修補、資本循環與全球資本主義危機爆發的循環性 44
圖2-4 新自由國家的制度雜交與分歧地理 55
圖2-5 企業型城市的跨尺度時空接合策略 65
圖2-6 鉅型計畫與企業型都市治理的跨尺度策略關係 71
圖2-7 新自由城市主義形構及其空間生產過程 72
圖2-8 全球地方國家及其領域再結構促成的再尺度化關係 84
圖2-9 多重尺度的空間階層與再尺度化動態 86
圖2-10 國家空間再結構的發展路徑、尺度關係與策略選擇意涵 94
圖2-11 空間生產-尺度建構-策略選擇共構的新自由城市地緣治理取向 102
圖3-1 香港新自由化路徑:重大地緣政經事件、發展階段與空間形式再結構 106
圖3-2 大中華經濟圈中跨境生產鏈中各次區域的經濟分工與連結關係 117
圖3-3 回歸前香港經濟體系中主要產業群聯繫關係 120
圖3-4 MIT研究團隊提議的生產者服務業與製造業整合關係 121
圖3-5 香港1991-2000按季GDP變動率(港譯:本地生產總值) 122
圖3-6 回歸後香港的勞動人口、失業率及整體就業人數波動趨勢 124
圖3-7 回歸後香港內需結構發展趨勢 124
圖3-8 回歸後香港整體貿易差額及出口增減趨勢 124
圖3-9 香港恆生指數月度變動歷史趨勢(1964-2010) 125
圖3-10 香港品牌形象─香港‧亞洲國際都會 126
圖3-11 2000年後香港與珠三角間重大交流情形概覽 129
圖3-12 全球經濟變遷時序與亞洲鉅型都市-區域成長趨勢 140
圖3-13 香港1961~2011年人口成長趨勢圖 140
圖3-14 香港戰後內在社經情境、外在地緣政經情勢及危機循環對塑造新自由都市過程所扮演的結構性關係 143
圖4-1 香港戰後殖民資本主義都市社會結構與治理聯盟關係圖 154
圖4-2 香港島、九龍半島和離島地區土地業權關係 156
圖4-3 界限街以北九龍及新界地區土地業權關係 157
圖4-4 當前香港新自由化都市社會結構與地產主導治理聯盟(地產霸權)關係 164
圖4-5 香港重光至韓戰爆發前香港的空間修補途徑與空間尺度關係 166
圖4-6 韓戰爆發至中國改革開放前夕香港的空間修補途徑與空間尺度關係 168
圖4-7 香港-珠三角的跨境前店後廠分工模式示意圖 173
圖4-8 1979中國啟動改革開放~1997香港主權回歸前夕的空間修補途徑與空間尺度關係 174
圖4-9 和記黃埔2011年按地區別累積擁有之發展項目樓地板面積 179
圖4-10 1997香港主權回歸至今的空間修補途徑與空間尺度關係 182
圖4-11 戰後工業化階段香港理想的人文區位佈局 194
圖4-12 機場核心計劃各發展項目區位分布圖 205
圖5-1 觀塘市中心重建計畫範圍與發展概念 234
圖5-2 數碼港園區範圍內各項商業、娛樂、寫字樓及各期住宅(貝沙灣)項目總體空間設計圖 239
圖5-3 數港港商業及科技項目建築群細部空間配置圖 240
圖5-4 關注西九發展專業團體「香港更美好」2006年宣傳手冊提議的「西九龍文化公園」概念 243
圖5-5 中環新海濱城市設計研究的研究範圍和主要用地 245
圖5-6 經公眾諮詢討論後重新設計的景觀與建物輪廓設計 247
圖5-7 港珠澳大橋主橋結構圖全覽 253
圖5-8 廣深港高速鐵路廣深段、香港段(興建中)及主要場站區位圖 255
圖5-9 廣深港高鐵路線與全國高鐵路網空間關係圖 256
圖5-10 香港與珠三角城市群在當前中國競爭型城市-區域治理氛圍下的區域發展與地緣政經關係 263
圖5-11 珠江三角洲城鎮群協調發展規劃中總體空間佈局規劃總圖 274
圖5-12 大珠三角城鎮群協調發展規劃中空間結構優化策略示意圖 274
圖5-13 環珠江口灣區行動計劃實施範圍 275
圖5-14 改革開放初期香港資本主導的空間修補與城市-區域治理模式 285
圖5-15 香港主權回歸、中國沿海城市-區域崛起與新自由主義空間整合下激勵的競爭型區域協調與多頭治理模式 286
圖6-1 香港的新自由化路徑、「一國兩制」下的復古與翻新動向及城市空間-制度連結的時空關係 305

照片目錄

照片5-1 觀塘市中心重建範圍核心─裕民坊沿街建物衰敗現況 232
照片5-2 觀塘道南側大型購物商場APM及北側重建區範圍內老舊工業大廈對比 236
照片5-3 西九龍文化區範圍圖 241
照片5-4 2010年7月份中環填海工程施工作業現場 248
照片5-5 2011年12月15日於金鐘站附近商業大廈力寶中心1座所攝中環CBD市容,本地段發展皆為港府歷年填海賣地所得 248
照片5-6 珠三角主要城市近年會展產業重點發展項目:(左上)香港灣仔會展中心、(右上)廣州琶洲會展中心、(左下)澳門路氹新城的威尼斯人複合型建築、(右下)深圳福田會展中心 270

表目錄

表1-1 香港因應回歸中國所提出的兩套相互競合的企業型都市治理策略 10
表1-2 近年珠三角三項重要區域協調規劃文件之內容重點 13
表2-1 兩種不同但重疊之空間修補定義 40
表2-2 Glassman的高端修補與低端修補型態之比較 42
表2-3 體制差異比較:凱因斯福利國家vs.熊彼得功利國家 50
表2-4 廠商與城市層次企業精神比較 64
表2-5 全球都市化vs.全球地方化 64
表2-6 Brenner對於全球化與國家權力辨證上之對照 81
表2-7 國家空間化的策略-關係取向 92
表2-8 權力的資本家邏輯vs.權力的領域邏輯 97
表3-1 1961~回歸前年主要年份GDP於全港按經濟活動分配%(按當時價格) 109
表3-2 香港1960~1990主要工業部門就業數比重 110
表3-3 改革開放後廣東省實際外資利用情形(按國/地區別) 113
表3-4 改革開放後深圳實際外資利用情形(按國/地區別) 114
表3-4(續) 改革開放後深圳實際外資利用情形(按國/地區別) 115
表3-5 臺灣方面兩岸經香港轉口貿易統計表 116
表3-6 香港四大支柱產業GDP及就業量發展趨勢(2000-2010) 130
表3-7 香港近年國際商務投資環境優勢項目於重要商業評比中之排名 132
表3-8 以連鎖量衡量計算按經濟活動劃分GDP:以實質計算的按年變動百分率 134
表4-1 1990年代後至今土地相關收入在香港政府總收入中所佔比重 158
表4-2 當前香港華資集團中最具影響力的地產家族企業 161
表4-3 港交所每年度20種成交最活躍股份屬地產類(含相關者)成交金額佔當年度股份總額百分比(1999-2011) 163
表4-4 回歸前主要年份中廣東省年度各類型外資中港資及投資製造業比重 169
表4-5 改革開放後~香港回歸前廣東省重點城市主要年份外資利用情形 170
表4-6 港交所每年度20種成交最活躍股份屬中資背景企業股份(含紅籌股或中國企業H股)成交金額佔當年度全港股份總額百分比(1999-2011) 177
表4-7 改革開放後兩個發展階段中香港與珠三角空間分工與競合關係比較 183
表4-8 全港2010年各類型房屋人口及戶數統計 192
表4-9 1990年代TDS檢討諮詢文件中提議的替選發展方案大綱 204
表4-10 機場核心計劃10項核心工程項目 206
表4-11 香港十大建設計劃內容摘要 218
表4-12 97後香港的各種重大規劃活動及新自由都市危機事件列表 220
表5-1 各類型外資(含中國大陸、臺灣)在港設立區域總部、地區辦事處數目 229
表5-2 回歸後香港特區政府為回應新自由化啟動的代表性鉅性計畫項目 230
表5-3 中環新填海區五大主要用地建築密度重新調整前後差異 247
表5-4 兩岸五地近年GDP成長總量比較 268
表5-5 改革開放後長三角與珠三角主要年份地區生產總值消長比較 269
表5-6 目前香港新興市民主導都市政權與既有地產主導都市政權間的空間爭議 293
表6-1 各發展階段中港府在土地政策及空間規劃扮演的社會調節功能 304

參考文獻
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