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研究生:黃柏竣
研究生(外文):Bo-jyun Huang
論文名稱:還原劑、突變及量子點對細菌視紫質光電響應影響之探討
論文名稱(外文):Modulating the photoelectric response of bacteriorhodopsin with reductant, mutation, and quantum dots
指導教授:陳秀美陳秀美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsiu-mei Chen
口試委員:陳秀美
口試日期:2012-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:139
中文關鍵詞:細菌視紫質光電晶片親和性吸附非特異性突變量子點
外文關鍵詞:Bacteriorhodopsinphotoelectric chipaffinity adsorptionnonspecificitymutationquantum dots
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Halobacterial salinarum古生菌之紫色細胞膜(purple membrane, PM)上有一單方向性光驅動質子泵,稱為細菌視紫質。本研究結合生物親和性吸附與逐層修飾法將鍵結有biotin的 PM固定化於ITO玻璃上,且有效利用NaBH4去除部份非特異性吸附之影響,以探討所製備生物晶片之光電響應、接觸角及循環伏安法分析之表現。接觸角分析顯示在層層塗覆過程中,水滴接觸角會從ITO面的5~6°上升到自排性單分子膜的約25°,且再塗覆上活化avidin後上升到約60°;後續以NaBH4處理後,接觸角則為略減小2~3°,最後固定化上PM後,數值則會再下降約16~20°。應用循環伏安法搭配Randles-Sevcik關係式之分析,也發現隨著塗覆層增加,赤血鹽的氧化擴散係數Dox也逐漸降低,從ITO的8.41×10-6 cm2/s下降到PM層為3.32×10-6 cm2/s,證明塗覆成功;以NaBH4處理後,赤血鹽擴散係數則有略有增加或維持不變。AFM分析也同時證實PM膜的塗覆。此外,藉由XPS元素分析也證實各塗覆層的存在。最後以Nd-YAG脈衝雷射激發晶片可得到B1為正與B2為負兩個極性相反之極快訊號,證實所塗覆之PM膜於ITO上具有高度定向性。其次利用上述高度定向性的製備方法,製作D96N BR突變種之晶片,其發現光電流訊號有別於原生種BR,會因為突變而抑制BR對質子的攝取,使得關燈微分訊號變小;然而在電解液中添加10 mM NaN3後,可回覆其光電流響應之對稱性。最後將150 ppm量子點與D96N BR光電晶片結合後,在藍光照射下,最大可以產生65 nA/cm2之連續光電流密度,比原生種BR之結果增加1.5倍,且均有別於未加量子點前之脈衝式光電流響應。
Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is a unidirectional light-driven proton pump residing in the purple membrane (PM) of Halobacterial salinarum. We have previously developed an affinity fabrication scheme of BR-based photoelectric chips by attaching biotinylated PM onto an activated avidin layer on ITO. To investigate nonspecific binding of PM, the activated avidin layer was reduced with NaBH4 prior to subsequent attachment of either biotinylated PM or unmodified PM at different pHs, and the effect was revealed by contact angle, cyclic voltammetry, and photocurrent analyses. The contact angle of coated ITO varied during the layer-by-layer fabrication, ranged from 5~6° on ITO, around 25° on the SAM layer, and up to 60° for the activated avidin surface. The angle was lightly lower when the activated avidin layer was treated with NaBH4, and decreased further 16°-20° after PM coating. The cyclic voltammetry analysis using the Randle-Sevcik equation disclosed that the oxidative diffusion coefficient of the electrolyte decreased with the mounting of coating layers, from 8.41×10-6 cm2/s on bare ITO to 3.32×10-6 cm2/s on PM-coated ITO, confirming the successful fabrication. The extent of diffusivity decline became smaller when NaBH4 reduction was employed, suggesting the lessening of nonspecific binding. Both AFM and XPS analyses also evidenced the coating of PM. Furthermore, the appearance of two ultrafast components, B1 and B2, in the photoelectric signals of coated PM under a pulsed laser illumination suggested a high degree of PM orientation in the affinity-prepared BR chip. The differential photocurrent response of affinity-immobilized D96N PM was different from that of the native one, with its peak-off signal almost completely diminished due to the inhibition of proton uptake by the mutation. However, the symmetry of its photocurrent was recovered by the addition of 10 mM NaN3 in the electrolyte. Finally, as the native chip, the differential photoccurrent of the D96N PM chip was transformed into a stationary response upon further coating of quantum-dot. The coating with a 150 ppm quantum-dot solution yielded a stationary photocurrent of 65 nA/cm2, which was 1.5-fold higher than the value achieved with the native PM chip.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 H. salinarum和BR 3
2-1-1 H. salinarum 3
2-1-2 BR 4
2-1-3 BR光循環 5
2-1-4 D96N 突變種BR的基本性質 7
2-2 PM固定化 10
2-3 PM曲度 13
2-4 BR光電響應 15
2-5 BR與量子點 20
第三章 實驗 23
3-1 實驗藥品 23
3-2 實驗設備 24
3-3 藥品配製與實驗流程 26
3-3-1 藥品配製 26
3-4 實驗步驟 29
3-4-1 BR濃度定量 29
3-4-2 PM的biotin修飾(參考陳逸航學長之論文) 30
3-4-3 ITO glass清洗 30
3-4-4 胺基化ITO製備 31
3-4-5 b-PM之固定化 31
3-4-6 量子點之修飾(參考鄭凱如學姐之論文) 32
3-4-6-1 胺基之量子點修飾 32
3-4-6-2 羧基之量子點修飾 32
3-4-6-3量子點於PM晶片之固定化 32
3-4-7 電場沈積法(EPS)PM晶片之製作(參考陳欣禹學長之論文) 33
3-4-8 循環伏安法分析 34
3-4-9 水滴接觸角量測 35
3-4-10 XPS樣品與分析條件 35
3-4-11 D1、D2光電訊號量測 36
3-4-12 B1、B2光電訊號量測 37
第四章 結果與討論 38
4-1 PM之非特異性吸附 38
4-1-1 造成PM非特異性吸附之原因 38
4-1-2 利用NaBH4去除活化avidin對PM之非特異性共價鍵結 39
4-1-2-1 非特異性共價鍵結對光電響應(D1、D2)之影響 39
4-1-2-2 非特異性共價鍵結對水滴接觸角影響 45
4-1-2-3 非特異性共價鍵結對循環伏安法影響 46
4-1-2-4 非特異性共價鍵結對PM晶片之AFM分析的影響 60
4-1-2-5 非特異性共價鍵結對XPS圖譜影響 73
4-2 PM理論塗覆方向性之探討 91
4-3 D96N PM晶片製備 98
4-3-1 D96N PM晶片製備條件最佳化 99
4-3-2電解液酸鹼值對D96N BR光電響應的影響 100
4-3-3 量子點結合D96N BR之光電響應探討 106
第五章 結論 133
第六章 參考文獻 135

表目錄
Table 4-1 Coating level of each coating layer on ITO glass. 90

圖目錄
Fig. 2-1 Schematic representation of a halobacterial cell and its main functional systems for phototaxis and photosynthesis. (Hampp, 2000) 3
Fig. 2-2 Structure of bacteriorhodopsin. Ribbon diagram of bacteriorhodopsin and retinal as a ball-and-stick model. (Kimura et al., 1997) 4
Fig. 2-3 Possible proton pathway in bacteriorhdopsin. (Kimura et al., 1997) 5
Fig. 2-4 Photocycle of BR. (Hampp, 2000) 6
Fig. 2-5 Sketch of the pump model of BR as it appeared around 1990. (Stoeckenius, 1999) 7
Fig. 2-6 (a) Typical response profile from a wild-type bR thin film immobilized at the SnO2/electrolyte (0.1 M KCl, pH 8.0) interface in an electrochemicall cell. The cell was irradiated with green light supplied by a 150-W xenon arc lamp. (b) Response profile at a electrochemical cell with D96N mutant protein. (Koyama and Miyasaka, 2000) 8
Fig. 2-7 (a) Response profile at a electrochemical cells with D96N mutant BR. (b) Effect of azide added to the electrolyte of the electrochemical cell containing D96N BR. (Koyama and Miyasaka, 2000) 9
Fig. 2-8 Magnitude of the light-on photocurrent (curve 1) and light-off photocurrent (curve 2) for a (PDAC/D96N)6 film with the concentration of NaN3 in 0.5 M KCl, pH 7.2 electrolyte solution. The inset shows the ratio of the magnitude of the light-on photocurrent to light-off photocurrent with the concentration of NaN3. (He et al., 1998). 9
Fig. 2-9 Setup for the fabrication of oriented PM films by the electric field sedimentation method. Due to the net negative charge of the PM, the PM fragments will move and attach to the cathode to form a dense PM film. (He et al., 1999) 10
Fig. 2-10 Schematic diagram of the PDAC/PM LBL adsorption. As shown, a layer of the polycation, PDAC, is first adsorbed onto the pretreated negatively charged surface of the solid support. Subsequently, a monolayer of the polyanion, bR, is electrostatically adsorbed onto the PDAC layer by control of the adsorption time and pH. APDAC/PM multilayer can be easily obtained by the LBL method by repeating the above procedure. (He et al., 1999) 11
Fig. 2-11 Schematic diagram of solid-supported vesicles that integrate bacteriorhodopsin conjugates as lipid bilayer membrane anchors. (Sharma et al., 2004) 12
Fig. 2-12 Streptavidin bound to biotin, thereby labeling both the EC and CP surfaces of normal PM via K129 and K159, respectively. Since K129 is more exposed to a hydrophilic bulk phase, the EC surface of PM contained many more streptavidin molecules than the CP surface. (A) Flat surface of biotinylated PM patches before streptavidin incubation. (B) 30 min after streptavidin injection into the liquid cell. (Su et al., 2008) 12
Fig. 2-13 The pH dependence of the permanent dipole moment per unit surface area. pH was adjusted by HCl/KOH system (—) or by low ionic strength buffer (---); OD575nm=4 at pH=6.6; crosses (x) denote the values for higher dilution, OD575nm=0.3 in HCl/KOH system. (Barabas et al., 1983) 14
Fig. 2-14 Scheme of bending of PM at different pHs. (Mostafa et al., 1996) 14
Fig. 2-15 Formation of collapsed and dome-like PM structures.(A) Bent PM-D85T may approach the substrate surface either from the convex side apex first (left column: PM 1) or from the con-cave side rim first (right column: PM 2). (B) In both cases strong surface interactions which antagonize the bending arise, pulling the membranes down onto the substrate surface (arrows). (C) However, in the case of PM 1 membranes are pulled onto the substrate surface from the apex outward resulting in flat and collapsed structures. In the case of PM 2 the rim flatly adsorbs to the substrate, but water trapped inside prevents further collapse causing dome-like structures. (Baumann et al., 2011) 15
Fig. 2-16 Temperature and pH effects on the photocurrent from a bacteriorhodopsin model membrane. The light source was a dye laser pulse at 590 nm. The two electrolyte subphases contained 2 M NaCl. (Hong and Montal, 1979) 16
Fig. 2-17 Schematic decomposition of a typical photocurrent response of a bacteriorhodopsin model membrane at room temperature and neutral pH. (Hong and Montal, 1979) 17
Fig. 2-18 Photocurrent components from an oriented bR film at various time scales at two typical pHs. The measurements were carried out underidentical conditions of 10 mM KCl and 1 mM K2HPO4at pH 8.3 for upper curves and pH 3.5 for lower curves, respectively. (a) Fast photocurrent components (B1 and B2) observed under pulsed laser excitation. (b) Slow photocurrent components (B3 and B3’) observed under pulsed laser excitation. (c) Differential photocurrent component (D1 and D2) observed under CW excitation. (Wang et al., 1997) 18
Fig. 2-19 Membraneorientation effect on the photocurrent components. The measurements were carried out under identical conditions of 10 mM KCl and 1 mM K2HPO4 at pH 8.3 for upper curves and pH 3.5 for lower curves, respectively. (a)B1 and B2 components. (b) B3 and B3’ components. (c) D1 and D2 components. Two types of membrane orientation were used and noted as ITO/EC-CP (extracellular side facing the ITO surface) for the upper curves and ITO/CP -EC (cytoplasmic side facing the ITO surface) for the lower curves. (Wang et al., 1997) 18
Fig. 2-20 Photocurrent signal under pulsed-laser excitation, in the time domain of 500 μs. Various film orientation on ITO glass are shown, ITO EC-CP (a) , ITO Random (b), and ITO CP-EC (c). B1 B2 are useful in determining membrane orientation. Measuring condition: 10 mM KCl, 2 mM K2HPO4, pH 8.0. Membrane orientations are also shown in the right side for each. (Wang, 2000) 19
Fig. 2-21 Normalized bR absorption and 575 nm QD emission, displaying spectral overlap. (Griep et al., 2010) 20
Fig. 2-22 (a) Emission spectra confirming attachment of single QD monolayer to the biotinylated PM electrode, while non-biotinylated PM resulted in no QD attachment. (b) bR electrode activation with and without integrated QD monolayer. Inset displays spectrum of incident white-light source. (Griep et al., 2010) 21
Fig. 2-23 Color onlineTime profile of the photocurrent of the bR/QD bionanosystem under 410 nm illumination. Insets show photocurrents of bR/QDs bionanosystem under 570 nm illumination (I) and pure bR under 410 nm illumination (II), respectively. (Li et al., 2007) 22
Fig. 3-1 Experimental procedure. 29
Fig. 3-2 The EPS procedure for preparation of a PM-coated chip. 34
Fig. 3-3 Scheme of the equipment setup for the measurements of D1 and D2 photocurrent signals. 36
Fig. 3-4 Scheme of the equipment setup for the measurements of B1 and B2 photocurrent signals. 37
Fig. 4-1 Fabrication scheme of a PM chip 38
Fig. 4-2 Photoelectric response of an unmodified PM chip coated on activated avidin ITO glass. Electrolyte: pH = 8.5. Suspension pH=4.5. 39
Fig. 4-3 Effects of PM suspension pHs on photocurrent density of PM and b-PM chips. +/- NaBH4 presents the b-PM-coated chips treated with and without NaBH4, respectively, after the activated avidin coating. Data represent the averages of three chips. 41
Fig. 4-4 Effects of PM suspension pHs on photocurrent density of b-PM- ITO chips. +/- NaBH4 presents the b-PM-coated chips treated with and without NaBH4, respectively, after the activated avidin coating. Data represent the averages of three chips. 41
Fig. 4-5 Electrolyte pH effects on the peak photocurrents density of b-PM (pH 4.5) chips coated on activated avidin (-NaBH4) ITO glass. Green columns represent the photocurrent density of Xenon light-on signals. Red columns represent the photocurrent density of Xenon light-off signals. Data represent the averages of three chips. 42
Fig. 4-6 Electrolyte pH effects on the photocurrents density of b-PM (pH 4.5) chips coated on activated avidin (-NaBH4) ITO glass. The values represent the averages of the total photocurrents density (the Xenon light-on signals minus the light-off signals) of three chips. 42
Fig. 4-7 Electrolytes pH effects on the peak photocurrents density of b-PM (pH 7) chips coated on activated avidin (-NaBH4) ITO glass. Green columns represent the photocurrent density of Xenon light-on signals. Red columns represent the photocurrent density of Xenon light-off signals. Data represent the averages of three chips. 43
Fig. 4-8 Electrolytes pH effects on the photocurrents density of b-PM (pH 7)chips coated on activated avidin (-NaBH4) ITO glass. The values represent the averages of the total photocurrents density(the Xenon light-on signals minus the light-off signals) of three chips. 43
Fig. 4-9 Photoelectric response of a Native b-PM chip coated on activated avidin (-NaBH4) ITO glass. Electrolyte: pH = 7.5. PM was suspend (a) pH 4.5, (b) pH 7. 44
Fig. 4-10 Contact angles of various chip surfaces. Data represent the averages of nine chips. 46
Fig. 4-11 Cyclic voltammograms of different coating layer on same scan rate, 1 mM K3Fe(CN)6 in 0.2 M KCl was used as the electrolyte. 48
Fig. 4-12 Cyclic voltammograms of (a) ITO, (b) SAM-NH2-modified ITO, (c) activated avidin chip, -NaBH4 (d) activated avidin chip, +NaBH4, (e) PM pH 4.5 chip, -NaBH4, (f) PM pH 4.5 chip, +NaBH4, (g) PM pH 7 chip, -NaBH4, (h) PM pH 7 chip, +NaBH4. 1 mM K3Fe(CN)6 in 0.2 M KCl was used as the electrolyte. 52
Fig. 4-13 Fitting of cyclic voltammograms by Randles-Sevcik equation in oxidation reaction. (a) ITO, (b) SAM-NH2-modified ITO, (c) activated avidin chip, -NaBH4, (d) activated avidin chip, +NaBH4, (e) PM pH 4.5 chip, -NaBH4, (f) PM pH 4.5 chip, +NaBH4, (g) PM pH 7 chip, -NaBH4, (h) PM pH 7 chip, +NaBH4. 1 mM K3Fe(CN)6 in 0.2 M KCl was used as the electrolyte. 55
Fig. 4-14 Fitting of cyclic voltammograms by Randles-Sevcik equation in reduction reaction. (a) ITO, (b) SAM-NH2-modified ITO, (c) activated avidin chip, -NaBH4, (d) activated avidin chip, +NaBH4, (e) PM pH 4.5 chip, -NaBH4, (f) PM pH 4.5 chip, +NaBH4, (g) PM pH 7 chip, -NaBH4, (h) PM pH 7 chip, +NaBH4. 1 mM K3Fe(CN)6 in 0.2 M KCl was used as the electrolyte. 58
Fig. 4-15 Diffusivities of ferrocyanide ion in the oxidation reaction of various chip surfaces. 59
Fig. 4-16 Diffusivities of ferrocyanide ion in the reduction reaction of various chip surfaces. 59
Fig. 4-17 AFM image of ITO glass. ITO購自承能公司,0.7 mm。 62
Fig. 4-18 AFM image of ITO glass/SAM-NH2. ITO購自承能公司,0.7 mm。 63
Fig. 4-19 AFM image of ITO glass/SAM-NH2/activated avidin, -NaBH4. ITO購自承能公司,0.7 mm。 65
Fig. 4-20 AFM image of ITO glass/SAM-NH2/activated avidin, +NaBH4. ITO購自承能公司,0.7 mm。 66
Fig. 4-21 AFM image of ITO glass/SAM-NH2/activated avidin, -NaBH4/pH 4.5 b-PM. ITO購自承能公司,0.7 mm。 68
Fig. 4-22 AFM image of ITO glass/SAM-NH2/activated avidin, +NaBH4/pH 4.5 b-PM. ITO購自承能公司,0.7 mm。 69
Fig. 4-23 AFM image of ITO glass/SAM-NH2/activated avidin, -NaBH4/pH 7 b-PM. ITO購自承能公司,0.7 mm。 71
Fig. 4-24 AFM image of ITO glass/SAM-NH2/activated avidin, +NaBH4/pH 7 b-PM. ITO購自承能公司,0.7 mm。 72
Fig. 4-25 XPS full spectra of different coating layers on ITO. PM was coated with either pHs 4.5 or 7 unsalted suspension buffer, and +/- NaBH4 present the b-PM-coated chips treated with and without NaBH4, respectively, after the activated avidin coating. 73
Fig. 4-26 XPS analyses of various fabricated ITO glass. (a) C, (b) N, (c) O, (d) Sn, (e) In atoms. 78
Fig. 4-27 XPS analyses of different PM-coated ITO. (a) C, (b) N, (c) O, (d) Sn, (e) In; Scan time: = 10. Activated avidin coated on ITO +/- NaBH4 (1, 2). PM was coated with either pH 4.5 (5, 6) or pH 7 (3, 4), and either –NaBH4 (4, 6) or +NaBH4 (3, 5), after the activated avidin coating. 81
Fig. 4-28 Carbon 1s XPS deconvolution spectra of (a) ITO, (b) SAM-NH2-modified ITO, (c) activated avidin chip, -NaBH4, (d) activated avidin chip, +NaBH4, (e) b-PM pH 4.5 chip, -NaBH4, (f) b-PM pH 4.5 chip, +NaBH4, (g) b-PM pH 7 chip, -NaBH4, (h) b-PM pH 7 chip, +NaBH4. 85
Fig. 4-29 Oxygen 1s XPS deconvolution spectra of (a) ITO, (b) SAM-NH2-modified ITO, (c) activated avidin chip, -NaBH4, (d) activated avidin chip, +NaBH4, (e) b-PM pH 4.5 chip, -NaBH4, (f) b-PM pH 4.5 chip, +NaBH4, (g) b-PM pH 7 chip, -NaBH4, (h) b-PM pH 7 chip, +NaBH4. 89
Fig. 4-30 B1 and B2 pulse photoelectric responses of b-PM chips preared with pH 4.5 or pH 7 suspension buffer, and on activated avidin ITO treated with (+) or without (-) NaBH4, (a) b-PM pH 4.5 chip, -NaBH4, (b) b-PM pH 7 chip, -NaBH4, (c) b-PM pH 4.5 chip, +NaBH4, (d) b-PM pH 7 chip, +NaBH4. 94
Fig. 4-31 Effect of PM suspension pH on D1 photoelectric responses of b-PM chips prepared on activated avidin ITO treated with NaBH4. (a) +NaBH4, (b) –NaBH4. 95
Fig. 4-32 Effect of PM suspension pH on B1 and B2 pulse photoelectric responses of b-PM chips prepared on activated avidin ITO treated with NaBH4. (a) Overlapped and (b) parallel arrangements of the responses. 96
Fig. 4-33 Effect of PM biotinylation on B1 and B2 pulse photoelectric responses of PM chips prepared with either pH 4.5 or pH 7 suspension buffers. 97
Fig. 4-34 B1 and B2 pulse photoelectric responses of PM chips prepared by with either pH 4.5 (a) or pH 7 (b) suspension buffer, (a) ITO/EC-CP, (b) ITO/CP-EC. 97
Fig. 4-35 Photoelectric response of an D96N PM chip coated on activated avidin ITO glass. Electrolyte: pH = 8.5. 98
Fig. 4-36 Effects of PM suspension pH on photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chips. +/- salt present the suspension buffers containing and without 1 mM NaCl, respectively. Data represent the averages of three chips. 99
Fig. 4-37 Electrolyte pH effects on the peak photocurrents density of b-D96N PM (pH 4) chips coated on activated avidin ITO glass. Green columns represent the photocurrent density of Xenon light-on signals. Red columns represent the photocurrent density of Xenon light-off signals. Data represent the averages of three chips 102
Fig. 4-38 Electrolyte pH effects on the photocurrents density of b-D96N PM (pH 4) chips coated on activated avidin ITO glass. The values represent the averages of the total photocurrents density(the Xenon light-on signals minus the light-off signals) of three chips. 102
Fig. 4-39 Electrolyte pH effects on the decay ratio of the second light-on response to the first light-on response of the b-D96N PM chip prepared on activated avidin ITO. Data represent the averages of three chips. 103
Fig. 4-40 Electrolyte pH effects on the photocurrent ratio of the first light-on to light-off responses of the b-D96N PM chip prepared on activated avidin ITO. Data represent the averages of three chips. 103
Fig. 4-41 Effect of NaN3 addition on photoelectric response of a b-D96N PM chip coated on activated avidin ITO glass. Electrolyte: pH = 8.5, ±10 mM NaN3. 104
Fig. 4-42 Effects of NaN3 concentration in the electrolyte on the peak photocurrents density of b-D96N PM (pH 4) chips prepared on activated avidin ITO. Black symbol represent the photocurrent density of Xenon light-on signals. Red symbol represent the photocurrent density of Xenon light-off signals. Data represent the averages of three chips. 104
Fig. 4-43 Effects of NaN3 concentration in the electrolyte on the photocurrents density of b-D96N PM (pH 4) chips prepared on activated avidin ITO. The values represent the averages of the total photocurrents density (the Xenon light-on signals minus the light-off signals) of three chips. 105
Fig. 4-44 Effects of NaN3 concentration in the electrolyte on the decay ratio of the Second light-on response to the first light-on response of the b-D96N PM-coated on activated avidin ITO glass. Electrolyte:pH=8.5. Data represent the averages of three chips. 105
Fig. 4-45 Effects of NaN3 concentration in the electrolyte on the photocurrent ratio of the first light-on to light-off responses of the b-D96N PM-coated on activated avidin ITO glass. Electrolyte:pH=8.5. Data represent the averages of three chips. 106
Fig. 4-46 Step photocurrents density of ITO glass in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 108
Fig. 4-47 Step photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 109
Fig. 4-48 Step photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 110
Fig. 4-49 Step photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip coated with 150 ppm QD (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 111
Fig. 4-50 Step photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip coated with 150 ppm QD (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 112
Fig. 4-51 Step photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip coated with 1500 ppm QD (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 113
Fig. 4-52 Step photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip coated with 1500 ppm QD (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 114
Fig. 4-53 Continuous photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip coated with 150 ppm QD (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 115
Fig. 4-54 Continuous photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip coated with 150 ppm QD (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 116
Fig. 4-55 Continuous photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip coated with 1500 ppm QD (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 117
Fig. 4-56 Continuous photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip coated with 1500 ppm QD (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 118
Fig. 4-57 Step photocurrent density of D96N b-PM chip coated with different concentrations of QDs (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 119
Fig. 4-58 Step photocurrent density of Native b-PM chip coated with different concentrations of QDs (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 119
Fig. 4-59 Continuous photocurrent density of D96N b-PM chip coated with different concentrations of QDs (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 120
Fig. 4-60 Continuous photocurrent density of Native b-PM chip coated with different concentrations of QDs (-COOH) in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 120
Fig. 4-61 Step photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip coated with 150 ppm QD (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 121
Fig. 4-62 Step photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip coated with 150 ppm QD (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 122
Fig. 4-63 Step photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip coated with 1500 ppm QD (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 123
Fig. 4-64 Step photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip coated with 1500 ppm QD (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 124
Fig. 4-65 Continuous photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip coated with 150 ppm QD (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 125
Fig. 4-66 Continuous photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip coated with 150 ppm QD (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 126
Fig. 4-67 Continuous photocurrents density of D96N b-PM chip coated with 1500 ppm QD (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 127
Fig. 4-68 Continuous photocurrents density of Native b-PM chip coated with 1500 ppm QD (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values under (a) green-light and (b) blue-light illuminations. 128
Fig. 4-69 Step photocurrent density of D96N b-PM chip coated with different concentrations of QDs (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 129
Fig. 4-70 Step photocurrent density of Native b-PM chip coated with different concentrations of QDs (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 129
Fig. 4-71 Continuous photocurrent density of D96N b-PM chip coated with different concentrations of QDs (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 130
Fig. 4-72 Continuous photocurrent density of Native b-PM chip coated with different concentrations of QDs (-NH2) in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 130
Fig. 4-73 QDs concentration effects on step photocurrent density of D96N b-PM chips coated with different functional group of QDs in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 131
Fig. 4-74 QDs concentration effects on step photocurrent density of Native b-PM chips coated with different functional group of QDs in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 131
Fig. 4-75 QDs concentration effects on continuous photocurrent density of D96N b-PM chips coated with different functional group of QDs in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 132
Fig. 4-76 QDs concentration effects on continuous photocurrent density of Native b-PM chips coated with different functional group of QDs in the electrolytes at different pH values and under different light-source illuminations. 132
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